CBSE Class 12 Biology Syllabus 2020-21

Instasolv is providing CBSE syllabus for Class 12th Biology subject to help you prepare for the exam from the latest curriculum. Some of the significant concepts covered in CBSE Class 12 Biology Syllabus are reproduction in organisms, human reproduction, reproductive health,  and sexual reproduction in flowering plants. Some more important concepts covered in details include the molecular basis of inheritance, principles of inheritance and variation, evolution, human health and diseases, microbes in human welfare and strategies for enhancement in food production. 

In CBSE Class 12 Syllabus of Biology you will also learn chapters based on ecosystems, organisms and populations, environmental issues, biodiversity and its conservation, organisms and populations, principles and processes of biotechnology and its application. The Class 12th Biology Syllabus is vast and Lengthy. Thus, we are providing here chapter-wise syllabus of CBSE Class 12th Biology in detail.

CBSE Syllabus for Class 12 Biology: Chapter-wise

Class 12th CBSE Biology Syllabus consists of 16 chapters. Below is a brief overview of all the chapters. 

Chapter 1: Reproduction in Organisms

Reproduction in Organisms of Class 12 Biology book explains about the necessity of reproduction, asexual reproduction, budding, fragmentation, binary fusion, vegetation propagation, sexual reproduction, sexual reproduction in plants, advantages of sexual reproduction and advantages of asexual reproduction.  

Chapter 2: Sexual Reproduction in Flowering Plants

Sexual Reproduction in Flowering Plants of Class 12 Biology Syllabus, educates you about Gametophyte development in flowers, sporogenesis, development of make gamete, parts of an angiosperm ovule, development of female gametophyte, structure of a female gametophyte, chasmogamous and cleistogamous flowers and cross-pollination. 

Here you will also read about devices to prevent self-pollination, self- incompatibility in flowering plants, bagging technique, the emasculation of flowers, triple fertilisation, dormancy of zygote and endosperm formation, types of fruit and parthenocarpy and apomixis. 

Chapter 3: Human Reproduction

Human Reproduction of 12th Class Biology Syllabus, gives you an idea of the male reproductive system, the female reproductive system, gametogenesis, menstrual cycle, fertilisation, implantation, pregnancy, the process of reproduction, duration and stages of pregnancy, pre-fertilisation, fertilisation, post-fertilisation and cell differentiation. 

Here you will also come across concepts such as trimester systems, acrosomal reaction, cortical reaction, sperm entry, karyogamy, activation of eggs, embryonic development and parturition and lactation. Our notes and solutions are also composed in a step by step way to make your learning process an effective one.

Chapter 4: Reproductive Health

Reproductive Health introduces you to reproductive health. It explains concepts like reproductive health problems and strategy, population explosion and birth control, medical terminology of pregnancy, sexually transmitted disease, estrogen and progesterone. 

Further, the chapter also discusses reproduction Control, infertility, population stabilisation and importance of reproductive health. 

Chapter 5: Principles of Inheritance and Variation

The chapter educate you about Law of Inheritance or Mendel’s Laws of Inheritance, Laws of Independent Assortment, Down’s syndrome, Linkage And Assortment, Mutation and Klinefelter’s syndromes. 

The chapter also explains the Mendelian Disorders: Cystic fibrosis, Haemophilia, Sickle-cell anaemia, Phenylketonuria, Colour blindness and Thalassemia. It also teaches you law of segregation, notations used in breeding experiments, genotypic variations, somatic variations, sex determination in humans, birds and honey bee and chromosomal disorders in humans. 

Chapter 6: Molecular Basis of Inheritance

Molecular Basis of Inheritance of Biology Syllabus introduces you to DNA, DNA structure, central dogma, DNA packaging, DNA replication, RNA genetics and non-genetics, genetic code, the degeneracy of the genetic code, non-overlapping, universality, triplet in nature, human genome project and the molecular basis of inheritance. 

Further, the chapter explains in detail about the DNA role in the molecular basis of inheritance, regulation of gene expression, prokaryotic gene regulation, the discovery of DNA, properties of genetic material, salient features of the genetic code, the genetic code and mutation. 

Here, you will also learn about the adaptor molecule, initiation, elongation, transcription unit, promoter, terminator, types of RNA, goals of HGP, methodologies of HGP, DNA fingerprint and polymorphism. Our notes and solutions cover all the topics and sub-topics of the chapter exhaustively, methodically and logically. 

Chapter 7: Evolution

Evolution of CBSE Class 12th Biology syllabus, throws light on the origin of life, the theory of evolution of life forms, the evidence for evolution, adaptive radiation, biological evolution, mechanism of evolution, hardy- Weinberg principle, Natural Selection and LUCA – Ancestor of all Life. 

The chapter also explains the Miller Urey Experiment, Abiogenesis, Panspermia, Clay Hypothesis, Deep-Sea Vent Hypothesis, RNA World Hypothesis,  a brief account of evolution and origin and evolution of man. 

Chapter 8: Human Health and Diseases

Human Health and Diseases chapter explains about health, diseases, poorly balanced diet, genetics disorders, stress and anxiety, infections from pathogens, intake of unhealthy and unhygienic food. 

This unit also discusses the lack of exercise and other physical activities, infectious diseases, non- infectious diseases, some common diseases in humans, immunity and AIDS. 

Chapter 9: Strategies for Enhancement in Food Production

Strategies for Enhancement in Food Production educates you on animal husbandry, plant breeding, single-cell proteins, tissue culture, hybridisation, biofortification and mutation breeding. 

The chapter also explains about somatic hybridisation, plant breeding for improved food quality and developing resistance to insects and pests and Beekeeping or apiculture. 

Chapter 10: Microbes in Human Welfare

Microbes in Human Welfare introduces you to microbes in household products, microbes in industrial products, microbes in sewage treatment, microbes in the production of biogas, microbes as biocontrol agents and microbes in human welfare. 

Further, the chapter throws light on biocontrol agents, fermentation, use of microorganisms in agriculture, production beverages which include wine, beer, whiskey and rum, curdling and production of antibiotics. 

Chapter 11: Biotechnology – Principles and Processes

Biotechnology – Principles and Processes of Class 12th Biology Syllabus explains about principles of biotechnology, tools of recombinant DNA technology, processes of recombinant DNA technology, isolation of DNA, DNA fragmentation using restriction endonucleases and Ligation of the desired DNA fragment into the vector.

You will also be taught about the transfer of the recombinant DNA into the host, culture of the transformed cells in a nutrient medium and Extraction of the desired product, bioreactors, restriction enzymes, recombinant of DNA technology, plasmid DNA and chromosomal DNA and DNA cloning.

Chapter 12: Biotechnology and its Application

Biotechnology and its Application is one of the important chapters of Biology Syllabus. It explains to you about the biotechnological application in agriculture, biotechnological application in medicine, and biotechnological application in aquaculture. It also teaches you about transgenic animals, ethical issues, organic agriculture and agro chemical-based agriculture.  

Further, you will come across concepts such as genetically engineered crop-based agriculture, ELISA, PCR, gene therapy, pest-resistant plants, advantages of golden rice, recombinant insulin, pharmacogenomics and edible vaccines. The chapter also educates you of Biotechnology scope, somatic gene therapy, germline gene therapy, application of gene therapy, genetically modified crops and Bacillus Thuringiensis. 

This chapter also throws light on the types of bt crops, bt cotton, bt brinjal, advantages of bt crops, disadvantages of bt crops and production of antibiotics.

Chapter 13: Organisms and Populations

Organisms and Populations is one of the fascinating chapters of 12th Biology Syllabus. It introduces you to organisms and their environments, major abiotic factors, adaptations, populations, population attributes, population growth, life history variation, population interactions, organism populations, communities, biomes, exponential growth, logistic growth, predation and competition.

Further, the chapter discusses parasitism, commensalism, mutualism, hibernation, aestivation, global ecology, landscape ecology, ecosystem ecology, community ecology, population ecology and organismal ecology. 

Here, you will also read about the molecular ecology, importance of ecology, conservation of the environment, resource allocation, energy conservation, eco-friendliness, human ecology and niche construction. 

Chapter 14: Ecosystem

An Ecosystem of Class 12 Biology book, educates you about the ecosystem- structure and function, productivity, decomposition, energy flow, ecological pyramids, ecological succession, nutrient cycling, ecosystem services, biotic, abiotic, producers, consumers, decomposers and energy flow. 

The chapter also explains the ecosystem types, terrestrial ecosystem, forest ecosystem, grassland ecosystem, desert ecosystem, mountain ecosystem, aquatic ecosystem, freshwater ecosystems,  and oceanic ecosystem. The various freshwater ecosystems covered in this chapter include lentic, lotic and wetlands. This chapter explains in detail about ecological pyramids, the pyramid of numbers, pyramid of biomass and pyramid of productivity.

Further, you will also learn about the ecological succession, primary succession, secondary succession, the function of ecosystem, food web, food chain, 10 percent energy rule and secondary consumers. The chapter gives you a brief of tertiary consumers, energy flow in ecosystem, trophic level, grazing food chain (GFC), saprophytic or detritus food chain (DFC) and parasitic food chain (PFC). Learning from our smart notes and solutions will help you score more marks in your exams.

Chapter 15: Biodiversity and its Conservation

Biodiversity and its Conservation is one of the cardinal chapters of Class 12 Biology Syllabus. It explains to you of biodiversity, biodiversity conservation, genetic diversity, species diversity, ecological diversity, patterns of biodiversity, latitudinal gradients, species-area relationship, loss of biodiversity, deterioration in plant production and causes of biodiversity loss such as habitat loss and fragmentation, over-exploitation, alien species invasions and co-extinctions. 

The chapter also educates you on the In situ conservation, ex-situ conservation, reasons for biodiversity conservation, ecological stability, the importance of biodiversity, economic importance and ethical importance, biodiversity in India, strategies for biodiversity conservation, biosphere reserves, hotspots, extinction, endangered organisms, red data book, national parks, sanctuaries and Ramsar sites. 

Chapter 16: Environmental Issues

Environmental Issues is one of the interesting chapters of the CBSE Class 12 Bio Syllabus. Here you will understand what the issues that our environment is facing are and how to control them. You will learn about air pollution and its control, water pollution and its control, solid wastes, agrochemicals and their effects, radioactive wastes, greenhouse effect and global warming, causes of Global Warming ozone depletion in the stratosphere, degradation by improper resource utilisation and maintenance, deforestation, industrialisation and emissions from vehicles. 

You will also learn about Factory farming, Recycling of waste, Conservation of water and electricity, Use reusable items instead of disposable items, usage of plastics, Minimise the use of vehicles, Overpopulation, Solutions to Environmental Issues. 

Further, you will also read about the chlorofluorocarbon, man-made causes and natural causes of global warming, volcanoes, water vapour, melting permafrost, forest blazes, effects of global warming: loss of natural habitat, decrease in the human population, the spread of diseases, climate change, the threat to the ecosystem, rise in temperature, burning of fossil fuels, acidification of water bodies and runaway greenhouse effect.