NCERT Exemplar Class 12 Biology Chapter 7 Solutions: Evolution
NCERT Exemplar Class 12 Biology Solutions Chapter7-Evolution will help you to revise the complete syllabus to score higher in exams. Through this chapter, you will understand the Origin of Life, Evolution of Life Forms – A Theory, Evidence for Evolution, Adaptive Radiation, and Biological Evolution. NCERT Exemplar Class 12 Biology solution will also help you to learn about the Mechanism of Evolution, Hardy – Weinberg Principle, A Brief Account of Evolution, Origin, and Evolution of Man.
NCERT Exemplar Class 12 Biology Solutions Chapter7-Evolution has a total of 52 questions that are divided into 4 sections touching all the topics based on Chapter 7- Evolution. The questions are of various kinds which will help you get a complete revision with the help of numerical based questions, question banks, short and long type questions, objective type questions, and MCQs kind of questions exercises and worksheets related to genetics which are important from the CBSE board exam point of view.
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Important Topics for NCERT Exemplar Class 12 Biology Solutions Chapter
- Artificial Selection: This process is done by humans to select the best species of plants and animals.
- Founder’s Effect: The new colony population has a different gene frequency than the parent population frequency.
- Gene Pool: Addition of all the genes in a population.
4. Genetic Drift: The ability to exclude genes from certain traits in a population due to migration or death.
- Saltation: A large number of mutations.
6. Speciation: Pre-existing species when leads to new species.
- Organic (Biological) Evolution: Changes in the characteristics/traits of the organisms or groups of these populations over several generations.
- Homologous organs: These have the same basic structure and the same embryonic origin, but they fulfil different functions in different species.
- The Theories of Origin of Life
- Theory of Special Creation: God has created life within 6 days.
- Theory of Spontaneous Generation: According to this theory, life came from spoiled substances like straw and mud.
- Panspermia Theory: Life came from a place known as space panspermia.
- Modern Oparin-Haldane Theory: According to this theory, life naturally came from nonliving things on earth. First inorganic compounds and then organic compounds were formed under ever-changing environmental conditions. This is called chemical evolution. The Earth’s condition was the high temperature, volcanic storms, a reducing atmosphere containing methane and ammonia (no free oxygen).
- Experimental Evidence for abiogenesis (Millerís Experiment): In 1953, Stanley Miller demonstrated in the laboratory that electrical discharges can produce complex organic compounds from a mixture of methane, ammonia, water vapour, and hydrogen. He used a mixture of gases such as CH4, NH3, H2 and water vapour to simulate primitive atmospheric conditions.
- Molecular evidence: This evidence shows common ancestry based on parallel nucleic acid and amino acid sequences, as well as universal genetic codes, e.g. Human and chimpanzee DNA, is 98.2% same
- Evidence from embryology: Based on this evidence-based comparative development, the study of different spinal cord embryos, all observations on the spinal cord stage.
- Divergent evolution: The development of different functional structures from a common form of inheritance is called divergent evolution, for example, the development of homologous organs.
- Convergent evolution Development of similar adaptive functional structures in groups of unrelated organisms, for example, the development of analogue organs.
- Parallel evolution: When more than one adaptive radiation is found in a different geographic region, it is called parallel evolution. Example: Australian marsupials and placental mammals.
- Industrial Melanism: It is an adaptation in which the butterflies living in the industrial area developed melanin pigments to match their body colour to the tree trunk.
- Adaptive radiation: Adaptive radiation is the process of evolving different species in one geographic area from one point to another and emitting them to other habitats.
Discussion of Exercises of NCERT Exemplar Class 12 Biology Solutions Chapter7-Evolution
- The first section of NCERT Exemplar Class 12 Biology Solutions Chapter 7 has 18 questions which are MCQs that are based on the idea of Origin of Life, Evolution of Life Forms – A Theory, Evidence for Evolution, Adaptive Radiation, Biological Evolution
- The second section has 15 questions which are very short answer type questions that will help you to understand different experiments and theories of evolution, Louise Pasteur’s experiment, natural selection and factors affecting allele frequency.
- The third section has 12 questions which are short answer types that will ask you to give reasons for different terminologies including effects of migration on selection, survival of fittest, etc.
- The fourth section has 7 questions which are long answer type questions that are based on explanation over Darwin’s awareness about Mendelian work, adaptive strategies and evolution theory of Darwin.
- The NCERT exemplar questions include the simplest quality problems that will test you in varying levels of difficulty on any given topic. Questions that are mentioned within the NCERT exemplar are of immense importance from CBSE’s point of view.
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