NCERT Exemplar Class 6 Science Chapter 16 Solutions: Garbage In Garbage Out

NCERT Exemplar Class 6 Science Solutions Chapter 16, ‘Garbage in, Garbage out’, includes topics like ‘What is garbage?’ ‘How to handle it?’M Types of waste, Recycling of waste, landfills, and Vermicomposting, etc. There are 4 exercises which carry 22 questions in total. Our experienced teachers have covered all the questions asked in NCERT Exemplar Class 6 Science Solutions Chapter 16. 

In chapter 16 of Class 6 NCERT Exemplar, we will study about the definition and sources of garbage, how to reduce waste, composting, recycling of waste, and vermicomposting in detail to facilitate you with a better understanding of topics and subjects.

Important Topics of NCERT Exemplar Class 6 Science Chapter 16


Garbage is defined as a waste product, especially domestic scrap. We generate so much garbage in our day-to-day life including plastic bottles and wrappers, pencils, sharps, tins, papers, nuts shells, fruits and vegetables peeling, broken toys, old clothes, slippers, etc. 

Garbage can also include medical waste, institutional waste, sewage waste, industrial waste, green waste, and animal by-products. Domestic waste also known as household waste includes empty containers, fruits, and vegetable peeling, packaging, papers, and broken glass, etc. 

Medical waste includes human anatomical waste (like blood and tissue) and animal waste. The industrial waste includes all the waste generated from industries like glasses, papers, metals, fertilizers, plastics, solid materials, fuels, dyes and ashes. 

All this waste gives invitations to many diseases if not treated well, so it is very important to transfer and handle them properly to avoid any destruction. 

Sources of Garbage

Garbage can be generated from various sources such as agricultural waste, municipal waste, medical waste, automobile waste, industrial waste, construction or demolition waste and electronic waste.

  • Domestic Waste: Domestic waste also known as household waste includes organic waste (such as kitchen waste including vegetables and fruits peeling, nutshell, eggshell, leaves, and leftover food, etc.)
  • Municipal Waste: Municipal waste also known as public waste collected and treated by municipalities includes street waste, dead animals, and abandoned vehicles, etc.
  • Commercial Waste: Commercial waste is known as a waste generated from private or government organizations that include waste generated from offices, markets, hotels, and restaurants, etc.
  • Industrial Waste Industrial waste is known as waste generated from industries that include solid materials, fuels, dyes, ashes, and paints, etc.
  • Institutional Waste Institutional waste is known as waste generated from institutions that include waste generated from research centres, laboratories, hospitals, clinics, pharmacy, universities, and schools, etc.

Garbage Handling

In Chapter 16, we will also study Garbage Handling, which means the process and actions required to transport, recycling, and disposal of waste. 

Proper handling of garbage or waste includes the following:

  • Collection of waste: Collection of waste is necessary for waste management. It deals with the process of a curbside collection which is a collection of waste from households through vehicles provided by the municipality.
  • Dedicated Dustbin use: This includes the installation and proper use of separate dustbins for various waste such as organic waste, liquid waste, and solid waste. The green dustbins which you see on roadsides, hospitals, and schools are meant for organic waste including vegetable and fruit peeling, etc. The blue dustbin is dedicated to the collection of non-biodegradable waste such as plastics, glass, and metals. Yellow dustbin which you see in hospitals, clinics or pharmacies is meant for the collection of biomedical waste such as human anatomical waste (tissue, blood, and fluids) expired tablets, band-aids, and syringes, etc. 
  • Transportation of waste: Transportation of waste is the process of transferring the waste from the point source to a dedicated land where the waste would be disposed of (landfills). 


Next, we will learn about Landfills, which are the sites where all the collected waste from different sources are being disposed of and buried. Landfills are generally located out of cities and towns to avoid any contamination and pollution from different levels. 


Composting is a process of making manure from organic material such as fruits and vegetable peelings, nutshells, dead and decay leaves, twigs, and grasses. Composting does not contain any chemical introduction. It is chemical-free and eco-friendly.


Vermicomposting is a process of making manure by the full-fledged use of organic materials and the introduction of earthworms (especially red worms.) Vermicomposting is a safe and reliable process of making manure. It is nutrient-rich and chemical-free.

Harmful Effects of Waste

The harmful effects of waste in Chapter 16 include the following destruction:

  • Pollution at various sources: Improper handling of waste promotes pollution at various sources such as air, water, and soil.
  • Negative impact on human health: Increase rate of pollution has adverse effects on human health. Pollution causes massive destruction and causes many diseases such as typhoid, malaria, and cholera, etc.
  • Greenhouse Gas Emission: Greenhouse gas emission is caused due to an increase in pollution rate and this leads to the melting of glaciers and depletion of the ozone layer etc.

The chapter has a bunch of exercises along with question answers to clear all the mentioned topics and to provide you a better understanding of concepts. All the exercises are quite engaging to assist you with better knowledge and learning.

NCERT Solutions provide you in-depth explanations and step by step solutions to clear all the doubts. NCERT books strictly adhere to the CBSE syllabus due to which it is the most prominent source of study material.

NCERT Exemplar Class 6 Science Chapter 16 Exercise Discussion

  1. The exercise questions of NCERT Exemplar Class 6 Science Chapter 16 are fabricated so as to raise awareness as well as help you practice for your CBSE exam
  2. The solutions prepared are detailed in the most precise and accurate way possible
  3. The questions in this chapter are in very simple language that will help you revise the concepts of compost, chemical fertilisers, and reuse 
  4. These questions will help you develop a scientific temperament towards the land and plastic pollution
  5. It is advised that you solve the Class 6 NCERT Exemplar Exercise question to increase your exam score significantly

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