NCERT Solutions for Class 11 Biology Chapter 5 – Morphology of Flowering Plants
NCERT Solutions for Class 11 Biology Chapter 5- Morphology of Flowering Plants would surely help you to fathom all the concepts. They will simplify the significant topics that you may usually find challenging in the chapter. The chapter Morphology of Flowering Plants discusses the in-depth structure of the flowering plants. Each part is well defined with diagrammatic representation. Moreover, the semi-technical description of a typical flowering plant is explained along with examples.
The chapter of NCERT Solutions has 15 questions which can be very helpful for CBSE and other medical entrance tests such as NEET. NCERT Solutions for Class 11 Biology Chapter 5- Morphology of Flowering Plants by Instasolv present a concise solution covering various facts and concepts which are explained with numerous examples. This sagaciously designed material by dedicated experts presents complex concepts in an intelligible manner.
NCERT Solutions for Chapter 5- Morphology of Flowering Plants
The primary root is the result of the direct elongation of the radicle, which then grows inside the soil. It has several secondary and tertiary roots. The taproot system is constituted by the primary root and its branches. Where the roots arise from other parts but not from the radicle are the adventitious roots. The main purpose of the root is to absorb minerals and water from the soil.
- Regions of the Root
Root cap is the thimble-like structure at the apex of the root. Above it is the region of meristematic activity. The cells near this part have large and elongated roots. This part is the region of elongation and proximal to this is the region of maturation, where the zone gets differentiated and mature. In this region very fine thread-like structures called the root hairs to appear.
- Modifications of the Roots
In some plants, roots carry out other functions also like the storage of food and respiration. Prop roots are those which provide support to the plant. In plants like maize and sugarcane supporting roots come from the lower nodes of the stem, these are the stilt roots. Pneumatophores roots help in getting oxygen for respiration.
It is the ascending part of the axis having branches, leaves, flowers, and fruits. It has nodes and internodes. Its function is to conduct water, minerals, and sometimes carry out the process of photosynthesis.
- Modifications of the Stem
In some plants, stems are modified to perform other functions like, storage of food, helping plants to climb, sometimes getting modified into thorns to give the plant protection. Moreover, stems get modified into opuntia to carry out photosynthesis.
Leaves are the flat structures on the nodes of the stem and are crucial for photosynthesis. A leaf has three parts: leaf base, petiole, and lamina. Leaf base attaches the leaf to the stem. In leguminous plants, the leaf base becomes swollen known as a pulvinus. Petiole provides flexibility to the leaves. The green expanded part is known as the lamina of the leaf blade.
In lamina, the organization of veins and veinlets is known as venation. Their web is known as reticulate.
- Types of Leaves
In a simple leaf, incisions of the lamina do not touch the midrib. In a compound leaf, the incisions of lamina reach the midrib. A compound leaf has two types: pinnately and palmately.
Phyllotaxy is the arrangement of leaves. They are of three types: alternate, opposite, and whorled.
- Modifications of the Leaves
Leaves get modified into tendrils for climbing, spines for defence, or fleshy leaves store food.
The organisation of flowers on the floral axis is called an inflorescence. Two types of inflorescence: racemose and cymose.
The flower is the reproductive part of the plant. The swollen end of the stalk or pedicel is called the thalamus or receptacle. A bisexual flower has both androecium and gynoecium. The unisexual flower has only stamens or only carpels. A flower can be either actinomorphic (radial symmetry) or zygomorphic (bilateral symmetry). The position of floral parts on thalamus can be of three types: hypogynous (gynoecium occupies the highest position), perigynous (gynoecium is at the centre), and epigynous (gynoecium is just above the thalamus).
- Parts of Flower
A flower usually has four types of whorls: calyx, corolla, androecium, and gynoecium.
Calyx – It is the utmost whorl having sepals. It can be gamosepalous or polysepalous.
Corolla – It constitutes petals. The arrangement of sepals and petals is known as aestivation. It can be of four types: valvate, twisted, imbricate or vexillary.
Androecium – It consists of stamens which are the male reproductive part of the flower. Sterile stamen is known as staminode. In epipetalous, the stamens are attached to the petals. In epiphyllous, the stamens are attached to the perianth. Stamens may be monadelphous (united into one bundle), diadelphous (two bundles), and polyadelphous (more than two bundles).
Gynoecium – It is the female reproductive part of the flower. It consists of carpels that have three parts: stigma, style, and ovary. The organisation of ovules in the ovary is known as placentation. Types of placentation are: marginal, exile, parietal, free central, and basal.
After fertilisation, the mature ovary forms the fruit. Parthenocarpic fruits are formed without ovary fertilisation. The fruit consists of pericarp and seeds. The outermost part of the pericarp is epicarp, the middle part is the mesocarp, and the innermost part is the endocarp.
A seed consists of a seed coat and embryo. The embryo has a radicle, embryonal axis, and cotyledons.
- Structure of a Dicotyledonous Seed
Testa and tegmen are the two layers of the seed coat. Through hilum, the seeds are attached to the fruit. The micropyle is a small pore on the hilum. In such seeds, the embryo consists of two cotyledons.
- Structure of a Monocotyledonous Seed
The aleurone layer is a proteinous layer that separates the embryo. The embryo contains scutellum, which is one large cotyledon, along with a plumule and radicle. Plumule is enclosed in coleoptile, while radicle is enclosed in coleorhiza.
Discussion of Exercises of NCERT Solutions for Class 11 Biology Chapter 5- Morphology of Flowering Plants
- Most of the questions in the NCERT Class 11 Biology Chapter 5 are definition based.
- Some questions are based on the features of flowering plants.
- A few comparative questions are also asked.
- Questions based on the semi-technical description are also there.
- There are questions in which you have to differentiate between various types of flowering plants such as Racemose And Cymose Inflorescence, Fibrous Root And Adventitious Root etc.
By the use of simplest language and comprehensive explanations in the NCERT solutions for class 11 Biology chapter 5, you will be able to revise the chapter quickly. These solutions will surely be helpful for you to achieve satisfactory results in your exams. All the solutions are designed as per the latest CBSE syllabus to meet your study requirements in class 11.