NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Biology Chapter 11 – Biotechnology: Principles and Processes
NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Biology Chapter 11- Biotechnology Principles and Processes are comprehensive answers to all the questions present in this chapter. Chapter 11 of NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Biology teaches you that Genetic engineering can modify DNA and change the organism phenotypes. It further tells you that bioprocess engineering maintains sterile conditions to grow antibiotics and vaccines. Genetic engineering techniques, recombinant DNA technology and DNA cloning along with bioprocess engineering, are some significant concepts covered in this chapter. Some other significant topics covered here are Steps and tools of recombinant DNA technology, bioreactors, and restriction enzymes. Our NCERT Solutions cover all concepts of the chapter in details and in a step by step manner.
The exercise at the end of the chapter comprises 12 all-inclusive questions. They cover all corners of the chapter. Our NCERT CBSE Class 12 Biology Chapter 11 answers all questions with relevant examples, detailed explanations and illustrative diagrams wherever necessary. Our NCERT Solutions are effective, reliable and transparent solutions. They are just what you need to ace your Class 12 board exams. They not only make you thorough with the chapter but also help you prepare for various competitive exams.
They have been drafted by our expert teachers in a well structured, methodical manner. They follow a logical flow. Our NCERT Solutions have been prepared on the latest CBSE Syllabus. They make learning fun, fast, interesting and highly-effective.
Introductions to CBSE NCERT Class 12 Biology Chapter 11
NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Biology Chapter 11- Biotechnology Principles and Processes highlights the important concepts of the chapter. Some of the significant concepts covered in this chapter have been discussed below.
- The term ‘Biotechnology.’
This section of the CBSE NCERT Class 12 Biology Chapter 11 tells you that we owe the origin of biotechnology to Hungarian agricultural engineer Karoly Ereky who named the study biotechnology in 1919. The title of ‘Father of Technology’ is bestowed upon him. It also tells you the meaning and importance of biotechnology.
- Principles of Biotechnology
Here you will study that Genetic codes contained in the DNA can be changed. It means that the characteristics of the species can get altered to bring improvements.
Here in Class 12 Biology Biotechnology Principles and Processes, you will also learn that Pharmaceutical industries use bioprocess engineering to manufacture enzymes and vaccines, antibiotics, etc. This chapter further tells you that Sterile conditions are maintained for the purpose to facilitate the growth of microbes.
- Genetic Engineering techniques
In NCERT CBSE Class 12 Biology Chapter 11, you will learn about the techniques of genetic engineering. This chapter will teach you about how a DNA sample is isolated from a donor. It gets inserted in the vector DNA. After it gets transferred to a host, cloning of the recombinant DNA takes place in the host organism.
- Recombinant DNA technology
This section teaches you about recombinant DNA technology. It tells you how it can join two DNA molecules from two different organisms. It gives you the full details of the process. This chapter further tells you that DNA samples are isolated and fragmented by using restriction endonucleases. The desired DNA fragment is litigated into the vector and many more.
The tools of recombinant DNA technology are restriction enzymes, ligases, polymerase enzymes, vectors and host entities.
- The secrets of DNA cloning
This section teaches you about DNA cloning. Through DNA cloning, you can make many identical copies of a DNA sample. You need cloning vectors with certain qualities. Some of them have been mentioned below
- It should be a smaller size, and the cloning vector should carry a large DNA insert.
- The cloning vector should have been originally replicated so that it can duplicate in the host.
- A Restriction site should be available in the cloning vector.
- Along with a selectable marker to screen the recombinant organisms, it should possess multiple cloning sites.
- Bioprocess engineering
You will learn about bioprocess engineering. Multiplication of cells in the bioreactors is called bioprocess engineering. The process generates a large culture with high protein. After undergoing several processes, purification and quality checks take place. Manufacture of drugs and antibiotics get facilitated in this manner.
Some recombinant proteins used in medical practice are given below.
- Interferon-α – Treatment of chronic hepatitis C
- Insulin – Treatment of type I diabetes mellitus
- Interferon-β – Used to treat herpes and viral enteritis
- Interferon B – Used in the treatment of Multiple Sclerosis
You will also learn about the production of biotechnological products from raw resources requiring bioreactors. Conditions are optimised for the required pH, temperature, vitamins, oxygen, etc. A sampling port facilitates the collection of samples for testing.
NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Biology Chapter 11- Biotechnology Principles and Processes Exercises
- Question 1 asks you to list about recombinant proteins that are used in medical practice.
- Question 2 test the knowledge of DNA and its diagram.
- Question 3 asks you about sizes of enzymes and DNA.
- Question 4 tests your knowledge about the molar concentration. It is a factual question.
- Question 5 is a descriptive question and asks about eukaryotic cells.
- Question 6 is a practical question from the section of bioreactors.
- Question 7 is another practical question that asks you about finding out the palindromic sequence.
- Question 8 is theory-based and tests your knowledge about DNA.
- Question 9 asks about DNA, and it utilises your analytical skills.
- Question 10, 11, 12 are long answer type questions, and they ask you to write notes on various topics covered in the chapter.
Benefits of NCERT CBSE Class 12 Biology Chapter 11- Biotechnology Principles and Processes
Some benefits of learning from our systematic NCERT Solutions Class 12 Biology Chapter 11- Biotechnology Principles and Processes are following.
- They make learning more enjoyable, fascinating and fun.
- Our NCERT Solutions are step by solutions to all questions given in the exercise.
- They cover all topics and subtopics of the chapter in details
- They help you to prepare for class 12 board exams and for various competitive exams such as NEET and JEE Main.
- All the solutions are to the point, and a hundred percent accurate. It helps you to learn in an effective and speedy way.
- They cover a wide range of question types important from exam point of view
- They help you learn and revise quickly and efficiently
- They have been drafted as per the latest CBSE Syllabus
- They include detailed explanations, relevant examples and illustrative diagrams to help you learn efficiently and improve your retention rate.
- They have been drafted by our expert Biology teachers.