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NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Chemistry Chapter 14 – Biomolecules

Our smart NCERT Solutions for Class 14 Chemistry – Biomolecules are carefully crafted by an expert team of chemistry teachers. In this chapter, you will learn that living systems are made up of various complex chemical entities known as biomolecules. It explains the characteristics of biomolecules like carbohydrates, proteins and nucleic acids and hormones. This chapter also classifies carbohydrates, proteins nucleic acids and vitamins on the basis of their structures. You will also learn to explain the difference between DNA and RNA and describe the role of biomolecules in the biosystem.

There are 25 questions asked at the end of the chapter covering the different topics of NCERT Solutions Class 12 Chemistry Chapter 14. These questions are related to characteristic features of biomolecules. The direct and explanatory questions are based on topics such as structure, properties, typical reactions, uses and special features of carbohydrates, sugar molecules, proteins, amino acids, nucleic acids, DNA, and RNA.

The solutions of Class 12 Chemistry Chapter 14 – Biomolecules gives you a sufficient amount of practice and in-depth understanding of the chapter. They have been devised to help you in learning and revising quickly and efficiently during class 12th board exams and other competitive exams so that you can achieve success.

NCERT Class 12 Chemistry Chapter 14: Important Topics

NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Chemistry Chapter 14 – Biomolecules cover all the concepts given in the chapter. The outline of the concepts covered in this chapter has been given below.

  • Carbohydrates

This part of the NCERT CBSE Class 12 Chemistry Chapter 14 tells you that carbohydrates are the large group of naturally available organic compounds, produced by plants. These are optically active polyhydroxy aldehydes or ketones which provide such compounds on hydrolysis.

This part further teaches you that carbohydrates are classified into three groups based on what they yield after hydrolysis. Monosaccharides are the ones which cannot be hydrolysed further to give simpler units. Oligosaccharides yield two to ten monosaccharide units on hydrolysis and polysaccharides yield a large number of simplest units on hydrolysis. Glucose is a monosaccharide and is an important source of energy.

Here you will also learn that monosaccharide can be aldoses or hexoses depending on whether they contain aldehyde or ketone groups respectively as the functional group. There are a number of reactions formulated to determine the structure and properties of glucose and fructose. Monosaccharides are held together by glycosidic linkages to form disaccharides or polysaccharides. 

You also learn here that carbohydrates provide energy, used as storage molecules in animals and are components of cells-walls of bacteria and plants.

  • Proteins

This part of the CBSE NCERT Class 12 Chemistry Chapter 14 tells you that proteins form the fundamental basis of structure and functions of life. Proteins are polymers of twenty different α-amino acids. Proteins are classified as acidic, basic or neutral depending upon the number of amino and the carboxylic group they possess.

Here you will also learn that there are a total of ten amino acids which cannot be synthesised in the human body and hence are called essential amino acids which must be provided through diet. Amino acids are colourless, crystalline solids soluble in water. 

This portion further tells you that amino acids are linked through peptide bonds in the protein molecule. On the basis of their structure proteins are divided into two types Fibrous and globular proteins. There are four levels to study the structure and shape of proteins, primary, secondary, tertiary and quaternary. The secondary and tertiary structure of the proteins gets perturbed on changing the pH or temperature of their environment. As a result, they are not able to perform their functions, and this situation is called denaturation of proteins.

This section also tells you enzymes are bio-catalysts which enhance the rate of biological reactions. They are selective and very specific in their actions. Chemically all enzymes are proteins. Proteins perform a lot of different structural and dynamic functions in living beings.

  • Vitamins

This part of the NCERT Class 12 Chemistry Chapter 14 discusses vitamins which are organic compounds though required in small amounts in our diet, and their deficiency causes diseases in humans. Vitamins are given their names using some alphabets, A, B (this has subgroups also B2, B3, B12 etc.), C, D, E etc. Vitamins may be fat-soluble (A, D, E and K) and water-soluble (B group and C).

  • Nucleic Acids

This part of the CBSE NCERT Class 12 Chemistry Book tells you that nucleic acids (polynucleotides) are long-chain polymers of nucleotides which in turn are made by combining a sugar molecule, a nitrogenous base and a phosphate moiety. Nucleic acids transfer characters from one generation to the next. 

You further learn here that there are two types of nucleic acids – DNA and RNA. The difference between DNA and RNA is that DNA contains a five-carbon sugar molecule called 2-deoxyribose, whereas RNA contains ribose sugar molecule having one oxygen atom less than deoxyribose.

Here you will also learn that both DNA and RNA contain the nitrogenous bases, adenine, guanine and cytosine. DNA and RNA also differ in the fourth base they contain, DNA contains thymine and RNA contains uracil. The structure of DNA is a double strand, whereas RNA is a single strand molecule. 

This chapter also explicitly elaborates on how DNA is the chemical basis of heredity and is the actual reservoir of genetic information. It has the codes needed to synthesise proteins in the cell. There are three types of RNA — mRNA, rRNA and tRNA whose role is to carry out the protein synthesis in the cell.

CBSE NCERT Class 12 Chemistry Chapter 14 Exercise

Our NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Chemistry Chapter 14 – Biomolecules consists of answers to all 25 exercise questions. They cover all the important concepts learnt in this chapter. The components of the exercise have been listed below. 

  • Question 1 is a direct question on monosaccharides.
  • Question  2 is a direct question on reducing sugars.
  • Question 3 is a direct question on the function of carbohydrates in plants.
  • Question 14.4 asks to classify sugar molecules.
  • Question 5 is a direct question on the glycosidic linkage.
  • Question 6 is a direct question based on glycogen.
  • Question  7 asks to predict the hydrolysis product of sugars.
  • Question  8 is a differential question.
  • Questions 9 and 10 ask you to predict the product of D-Glucose reactions with different reagents.
  • Question 11 asks about essential and non-essential amino acids.
  • Question 12 asks to give definitions.
  • Question 13 is a direct question on the secondary structure of the protein.
  • Questions 14 and 15 are based on the type of bonding in proteins and types of proteins.
  • Question 16 is a direct question asking you about the amphoteric behaviour of the protein.
  • Question 17 is a direct question about enzymes.
  • Question 18 is based on the denaturation of proteins.
  • Questions 19 and 20 are based on vitamins.
  • Questions 21 to 25 are based on nucleic acids. 

CBSE NCERT Class 12 Chapter 14 also contains 8 intext questions after the main topics taught in this chapter. All of these questions have been answered systematically in our solutions. 

Benefits of NCERT Solutions for Class 12th Chemistry Chapter 14 – Biomolecules 

Some of the key benefits of learning and revising from NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Chemistry Chapter 14 – Biomolecules are listed below.

  • They cover all the topics and subtopics of this chapter and give you meticulous and detailed answers to all the questions asked in the chapter.
  • The solutions are drafted in a stepwise manner to clarify all the doubts.
  • They provide handy tools for comprehensive learning and problem-solving.
  • These solutions take care of all study requirements and are of premium quality.
  • They help you in your revisions during class 12th board exams and other competitive exams so that you can achieve good marks. 
  • They are easy to understand, precise, and a hundred percent accurate.