Fundamentals of Physics Chapter 36 Solutions: Diffraction

Resnick Halliday and Walker Volume 2 Solutions for Chapter 36 ‘Diffraction’ is a perfect guide for those students to clear some of the major competitive exams like JEE and NEET. In this chapter of Resnick Halliday Walker, you will gain ideas about single slit diffraction pattern with white light, Intensity in single slit diffraction, Diffraction by a circular aperture, Diffraction by Double Slit, Diffraction Gratings, Gratings-Dispersion and resolving power, X-Ray Diffraction.

This chapter has a total of 114 questions which are divided into three sections of ‘Questions’, ‘Problems’ and ‘Additional Questions’. The problems are further divided into several modules that have numerous questions based on some of the important concepts like the angle of diffraction, beam intensity, grating spacing, wavelength and many more things. These questions will help you in enhancing your logical thinking and clear your fundamentals about Diffraction for Class 12, JEE Mains and NEET.

Preparing for any competitive exam needs the right kind of resources and the best solution which can clear your concepts as well as stimulate your logical thinking. Fundamentals of Physics by Resnick Halliday and Walker Solutions is a book that will help you achieve your goal. Our solutions would further add to your repertoire of knowledge with many tips and tricks of solving a complex problem in small steps without taking much time.

Important Topics for Resnick Halliday & Walker Fundamentals of Physics Volume 2 Solutions Chapter 36: Diffraction

The important ideas presented in the Diffraction Chapter of Resnick Halliday & Walker Fundamentals of Physics Volume 2 Solutions is to know how waves suffer from diffraction, demonstrating  Fresnel bright spots, and you will know about single slit diffraction. Along with that, you will gain knowledge about the diffraction pattern when the light wavelength is different.

  • Single Slit Diffraction: When a passing wave faces an obstacle or any aperture of a size same as that of the wave’s wavelength, these results in waves spread out and because of this it undergoes interference and this interference is called Diffraction.
  • The Intensity in Single Slit Diffraction: The intensity of the pattern of diffraction at any given angle is calculated at the centre of the pattern.
  • Diffraction by a Circular Aperture: Study the diffraction pattern in a circular aperture like a circular opening or any circular lens through which light can pass. It produces a central maximum and concentric maxima and minima. Rayleigh’s criterion also suggests that when in two objects the central diffraction maximum is at the first minimum of the other, they are on the verge of resolvability.
  • Diffraction by Double Slit: When waves cross through a combination of two slits, the result is a mix of double-slit interference as well as diffraction by each of the slits.
  • Diffraction Gratings: One of the most important tools in the study of light as well as objects that absorb and emit light is Diffraction Grating. It is a series of slits that are utilized for separating the incident wave to its component wavelength by separation of and display of diffraction maxima.
  • Gratings: Dispersion and Resolving Power: The dispersion D of a diffraction grating is an evaluation of the angular separation 2u of the lines it generates for two wavelengths differing by 2l. The resolving power R of a diffraction grating is a calculation of its capacity to make the emission lines of two close wavelengths distinguishable
  • X-ray diffraction: When X-ray meets a crystal structure, they suffer from Bragg scattering and it is very easy to see. If X rays are having wavelength I and it is scattering from the crystal planes with separation d, then the angle u, at which there will be maximum scattering is 

  2d Sin(u) =  ml , for m= 1,2,3,… 

Discussion of Exercises of Resnick Halliday and Walker Fundamentals of Physics Volume 2 Solutions Chapter 36: Diffraction.


This section in the chapter has a total of 14 questions based on slit separations; slit width, waves spreading because of diffraction, the centre of the diffraction pattern, grater with a greater number of rulings.


  • Module 1: Single slit Diffraction: This module consists of 10 problems based on different conditions of waves or light suffering single slit diffraction. You can solve these problems by calculating diffraction minima, diffraction maxima, and slit width.
  • Module 2: Intensity in Single slit Diffraction: This module consists of 7 problems based on the intensity that is produced in any single slit diffusion. You can solve these problems using Babinet’s principle and other formulas for counting diffraction minima and maxima.
  • Module 3: Diffraction by Circular Aperture: This module comprises about 15 questions and all questions are on light suffering from diffraction when they pass through a circular aperture. Here you can apply Rayleigh’s criterion for solving questions.
  • Module 4: Diffraction by Double Slit: This module consists of 9 different problems based on double-slit diffraction.
  • Module 5: Diffraction gratings: This module also consists of 9 problems based on the facts of the diffraction grating. Different question asking for the shortest and longest wavelength of light passing through-hole is asked here in this module.
  • Module 6: Gratings: Dispersion and Resolving Power: This module consists of 9 different questions based on dispersion, grating resolving power, diffraction grating in various conditions, Bragg angle.
  • Module 7: X-ray Diffraction: The module comprises about 10 questions based on the concept of Bragg scattering caused because of X-ray diffraction.

Additional questions: The last section of the questions consists of about 40 additional questions based on the overall concept of the entire chapter of Diffraction, its laws and theories. It has different interesting questions on diffraction rating, double slit and single slit diffraction, that will clear your concept on the whole chapter and enhance your logical thinking.

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