Fundamentals of Physics Chapter 40 Solutions: All About Atoms
Resnick Halliday & Walker Fundamental of Physics Volume 2 Solutions for Chapter of Resnick Halliday solutions All about Atoms’ will help you in Class 12 board exams along with JEE and NEET preparation. These solutions will help you learn more about the atom & its properties, the Einstein-de Haas experiment, angular and magnetic dipole moments of Atoms, the Stern-Gerlach experiment, magnetic resonance, exclusion principle, and multiple electrons in a trap, building the periodic table, X-rays, and Laser lights after reading this module.
There are 7 exercise modules in this chapter and each module gives you in-depth questions about the topics mentioned above. All these modules include more than 80 questions in total related to the smallest possible values of n in a multielectron atom, a wavelength associated with photons, the energy of the ground state and spin-up and spin-down electrons of an atom. The solutions for All About Atoms of Resnick Halliday & Walker Physics Volume 2 include stepwise solutions to all the 7 exercise modules.
Resnick Halliday and Walker Fundamentals of Physics Solutions will guide you for JEE and NEET to understand all about atoms. These solutions will help you understand what approach to use, how to strategically apply principles, and develop their problem-solving skills to solve exercises. Our solutions provide an in-depth and thorough explanation of problems for Physics for JEE and NEET.
Important Topics for Halliday Resnick & Walker Fundamentals of Physics Volume 2 Solutions Chapter 40: All about Atoms
Atoms & its Properties: Atom plays a vital role in physics and is the smallest particle of a chemical element that exists. Two important properties of an atom are they are stable and can combine can be explained using quantum physics. Atoms have energies and they can jump between higher energy to lower energy by emitting or absorbing light. To calculate these energies we can us the below-mentioned formula:
hf = Ehigh – Elow
- Angular & Magnetic Dipole moments: Orbital angular moments and orbital magnetic dipole moments helps in defining the quantum state of electrons.
- Orbital Angular Moments: Electrons are an atom and have angular moments by keeping the nucleus as the reference point. Its orbital angular moments are quantized. Few important formulas for orbital angular moments are as below-mentioned:
Lz = mLh for mL = 0, ±1, ±2,…, ±L
Where mL is an orbital magnetic quantum number.
Orbital Magnetic Dipole Moments: Magnetic dipole field is generated by a charged particle. Electron is an atom and has an angular magnetic dipole moment. Its orbital magnetic dipole moments are quantized. Few important formulas are as below-mentioned:
- Magnetic Resonance: Spin angular momentum and spin magnetic dipole moments of a proton are connected as a proton are positively charged. As we know that atoms have energies and they jump between their energies. So, when a proton of any element jumps from a lower energy state to a higher energy state by absorbing photons is called magnetic resonance, and a reversal is called spin flipping. Formula associated with magnetic resonance is as below-mentioned:
hf = 2µzB
- Pauli Exclusion Principle: It states that no electrons can have the same quantum numbers if in a trap. Any two electrons in an atom must differ in at least one of the four values of quantum numbers (n, l, ml, ms)
- Multiple Electrons in a Rectangular Trap: Pauli’s exclusion principle helps in understanding how electrons configuration is created. The first electrons go to the first level and as per Pauli’s exclusion principle that energy level is occupied. So the other electrons go to the next or higher energy level till it is fully occupied. The last energy level can be partially occupied or fully occupied depending upon the electrons count in an atom.
- Building Periodic Table: The elements are placed in increasing order of atomic number in the periodic table. The atomic number Z is equal to the number of protons in an atom, which is also equal to the number of electrons in an atom. State with the same value of quantum number n is called a shell, while a state with the same value of quantum number n and l is called subshell. Net angular moments and net magnetic moments of closed-shell or subshell are zero.
- X-rays: When we hit a solid target with high energy electrons, they lose their energy by scattering and emitting a continuous spectrum of electromagnetic rays called X-rays.
- Wavelength Cut-off: The point at which the electrons collide with the solid object and loses all its kinetic energy, that is its kinetic energy is zero, is called wavelength cut- off.
- Laser Lights: A light that is produced when atoms are stimulated is called laser light. It is different from ordinary bulb light as time and direction are coordinated and the same in laser light while random in ordinary bulb light. Few characteristics of laser lights are listed below:
- Highly Monochromatic
- High Coherent
- Highly directional
- Sharply focused
Exercise Discussion for Resnick Halliday and Walker Fundamentals of Physics Volume 2 Solutions Chapter 40: All about Atoms
- Module 1 is on properties of atoms and has 12 questions in it. Questions are based on finding the value of quantum numbers n and l, state values of shell and subshell, orbital angular moments, and orbital magnitude moments.
- There are 4 questions for the second module which is on the Stern-Gerlach experiment. Questions are based on finding the magnitude of the force, vertical displacement, the energy difference between magnitude moments.
- Three questions are based on the third module of Magnetic resonance. Questions are based on finding the magnitude experienced by electrons and the wavelength of protons.
- Module 4 exclusion principle has 7 questions in it. Questions are based on finding multiple h2 /8mL2, constructing an energy level diagram.
- There are 6 questions in module 5 which are on building the periodic table. Questions are based on finding quantum numbers, proving the number of states with the same quantum number n is 2n2.
- Module 6 is on X-rays which has 14 questions in it. Questions are based on finding the ratio of the wavelength of two atoms, wavelength cut-off value, kinetic energy, energy E1, and E2 associated with the first and second photon respectively.
- Module 7 is on Laser lights and has 16 questions in it. Questions are based on the finding rate at which photons are emitted, the energy difference between two levels, wavelengths, the intensity of the incident beam, and central disc.
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- Resnick Halliday & Walker Fundamentals of Physics Volume 2 solutions provide great guidance for entrance exams like JEE Mains and JEE Advanced, BITSAT and NEET.
- Resnick Halliday & Walker Physics Solutions would help you in developing analytical skills and problem-solving skills for students preparing for JEE.
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