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# Xam Idea Class 10 Science Chapter 12 Solutions: Electricity

Xam Idea Class 10 Science Solutions for Chapter 12 – Electricity provide you with the notes that are going to make your chapter easily understandable. In this chapter, you are going to learn about the different types of electrical appliances, how they work and how we denote different types of appliances in symbols. You will also learn about potential difference, resistivity, conductors, electric power, measurement of electric current and various types of circuit diagrams.

Xam Idea Class 10 Science Solutions Chapter 12 Electricity has 6 exercise sections that contain different types of questions. There are especially Higher-order Thinking Questions in the exercises that will help you in CBSE exam preparations. There are a total of 54 questions in this chapter. All the questions are designed according to the latest CBSE exam pattern. Xam Idea Class 10 Science Solutions for Chapter 12 – Electricity are very important for you as they help you understand the concepts of the chapter thoroughly.

Our team of subject matter experts has provided you with Xam Idea Class 10 Science Solutions for Chapter 12 – Electricity that are easy to understand and learn. All the solutions are designed by the experienced teachers so that you can prepare their syllabus in very less time. We have provided clear circuit diagrams and graphs with the solutions that will be very helpful for your understanding.

## Introduction Topics for Xam Idea Class 10 Science Solutions Chapter 12 Electricity

Think about life without “electricity” during this modern society. Is it possible to survive without electrical energy within the world of technology? Since we are a science student, so it’s necessary to know the essential concept behind the word “electricity”.

Charge (q): It is a  really small particle present in an atom it is either negative (electron) or positive (proton)

Current (I): The rate of flow of net charge is termed current. Denoted by (I)

I = Q/T ( t is time)

Ampere: Defined collectively as one coulomb of charge flowing per second.

Ammeter

• It is an instrument accustomed to measure the electrical current in an exceeding circuit.
• It is always connected nonparallel in a circuit
• It is represented by the symbol A in an electrical circuit.
•  It has low resistance.

One Volt: When 1 Joule of work is done to carry one coulomb (1C) of charge from one point to different of a current-carrying conductor then the electric potential is  I x V.

Voltmeter: It’s an instrument, accustomed to measure the electric potential difference and represented by the symbol V in an electrical circuit. It has high resistance.

Georg Simon Ohm (physicist) 1787 – 1854: He found the relationship between the current (I) flowing through a conductor and potential difference (V) across the terminals of a conductor using the circuit diagram.

Ohm’s Law: It states that the electric current flowing through a conductor is directly proportional to the potential difference across its ends, provided the temperature remains constant. Where “R” is the proportionality constant for the given metal at a given temperature and is said to be resistance, the graph between V and I is always a straight line.

Resistance: Property of a conductor that combat the flow of current. It is represented by ‘R’.

Rheostat: to increase or decrease the current accordingly in the circuit a component is used is called “Rheostat”, that regulates the current without changing potential difference. Represented by “Rh”

Factors on which Resistance of a Conductor Depends

(1) On its length (l)

(2) On its cross-sectional area (A)

(3) On the nature of the material

Resistivity: the resistance offered by a wire of unit length and the unit cross-sectional area is called resistivity.

Resistantly of a material varies with temperature

•  The resistivity of a combination  (a homogenous blend of metals) is commonly higher than of its constituent metals. Example Constantan (an alloy of Cu & Ni)
• Alloys have high resistivity and do not oxidize (burn) readily at high temperatures, for this reason, they are commonly used in electrical heating devices, like electric iron, heater, toasters, etc. For instance “Tungsten” as a fibre of an electric bulb.

Resistance in Series: (Maximum Effective Resistance)

• The current (I) moving through the obstruction in the arrangement will continue as before, through the potential distinction (V) over every resistor will be extraordinary.
• Thus, we conclude that effective Resistance of the several resistors joined in series is equal to the sum of their resistance.

Resistance in Parallel: (Minimum Effective Resistance)

The out viable obstruction of the few resistors associated in equal will be equivalent to the whole of the reciprocals of the individual protections.

The disadvantage of series connection in on electric circuit:

1. In a series connection, if any of the components fail to work, the circuit will break and then none of the components (ex. TV, bulb, fan..) will work.
2. It is not possible to connect a bulb and a heater in series, because they need different values to operate properly.

Hence, to overcome this problem we generally use parallel circuits.

The law expressed that the warmth created in a resistor is

(i) straightforwardly relative to the square of the current  (I).

(ii) legitimately corresponding to the opposition (R) for a given current.

(iii) straightforwardly corresponding to time (t) for which current move through a resistor.

Application of Heating Effect of Electric Current:

(1) Used in electric iron, toaster, broiler, radiator, and so forth.

(2) It is also used in a bulb to produce light.

(3) It is additionally utilized in the “intertwine associated in an electric circuit [ fuse a security gadget, ensure the circuits and apparatus by halting the progression of high flow. The wire of fuse is made of an alloy of metals, for example, Aluminium Copper, Iron lead, etc.

(4)The alloy should be of low m.pt and high resistivity, the fuse is always connected in a series circuit. When large current flows through the circuit, the temperature of the fuse wire will increase. This melts the wire and breaks the circuit.

Electric Power:

In the case of electricity, it is defined as the rate of change of electrical energy dissipated or consumed in electric electrical energy dissipated or consumed in an electric circuit.

### Exercise Discussion of Xam Idea Class 10 Science Solutions Chapter 12 Electricity

In this section, you have to attempt only 22 questions each of 1 mark. These questions mainly ask for the definitions and for names of different electrical appliances such as, the commercial unit of electric energy, devices in which electricity is covered into heat etc.

There are a total of 8 questions in this section and questions contain 2 marks. The reason why the resistance of a metallic conductor increases with the increase in temperature, why is it not advisable to handle high voltage electrical circuits with wet hands are some examples of the questions that you’re going to face in this section.

In this section, you get 8 questions each of 3 marks. All the questions in this section are very important as it can make your reasoning section and numerical section clear. The reason why an electric bulb become dim when an electric heater in a parallel circuit is switched, resistance when a metallic wire of resistance R is cut into ten parts of equal length and two pieces are joined in series and then five such combinations are joined in parallel and the effective resistance of the combination are the examples of the questions that are there in this section.