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Xam Idea Class 10 Science Chapter 3 Solutions: Metal And Non-Metals

Xam Idea Class 10 Science Solutions for Chapter 3 ‘Metals And Non-Metals’ are designed as per the latest guidelines of CBSE and NCERT. In this chapter, you would learn about metals, physical properties of metals, the reaction of metals with air, ionic bond, reactivity series, calcination, roasting, electrolysis, refining, corrosion etc. All the Xam Solutions will surely help you in stressful exam days. The solutions are formed in simplified language for the better and effective understanding of the chapter.

Xam Idea Solutions for Class 10 Science Chapter 3 include 87 questions for you to practice. The exercise section is divided into 5 parts which contain a variety of questions such as short answer type questions, long answer type questions, HOTS, value-based questions etc. The questions are formed on the set of topics discussed below. If you will practice all the exercise questions of the chapter, you will be able to score well in your exams.

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Important Topics Of Xam Idea Class 10 Science Solutions Chapter 3: Metals And Non- Metals

The chapter is based on the physical and chemical properties of different metals and non-metals. The physical properties include density, strength, malleability, ductility, nature etc and their chemical properties include reactions of metals with air/ water/ acids/ solution of metals salts.

Further, we have the concept of reactivity series and the reaction of metals with non- metals which result in the formation of ionic compounds.

The chapter also covers the properties of ionic compounds and occurrence/extraction of various metals from their ores. In addition, we have the concept of extracting metals according to their reactive nature and refining of metals. Not only this, the chapter includes the topic of corrosion and the methods to prevent it.

Introduction

  • All the elements which form positive ions by losing electrons are called metals and all the elements which form negative ions by gaining electrons are called non-metals.
  • Metals are generally soft, malleable, ductile, lustrous, shiny, good conductors of heat and electricity, sonorous, have high melting and boiling points whereas non- metals are totally opposite of metals.
  • Metals react with oxygen to form metal oxides which are basic in nature. All the metal oxides are basic in nature but some metal oxides show basic as well as acidic nature.
  • Metals react with water to form metal hydroxide and hydrogen gas. different metals react with different states of water such as cold water, hot water, steam.
  • Metals react with dilute acids to give metal salt and hydrogen gas. Metals do not react with nitric acid because nitric acid is a strong oxidizing agent.
  • A more reactive metal displaces a less reactive metal from its salt solution.
  • Non- metals form acidic oxides or neutral oxides and non- metals do not react with water, steam and hence do not displace hydrogen from water.
  • Non-metals do not react with dilute acids and do not displace hydrogen from dilute acids.
  • Non-metals form covalent bonds with chlorine which is not an electrolyte.
  • Aqua-rezia is a freshly prepared mixture of one part of concentrated nitric acid and three parts of concentrated hydrochloric acid. It is highly corrosive, fuming liquid. It can dissolve all metals, even gold and platinum.
  • Sodium and potassium are highly reactive metal so when they are kept in open they easily catch fire

Ionic Compounds

  • The force which links atoms or ions in a molecule is called a chemical bond. There are two types of chemical bonds that are covalent bonds and ionic bonds
  • When metal and non- metal react with each other they form ionic compounds. An ionic bond is formed by gaining or losing electrons and therefore the ionic bond is a strong bond.
  • Ionic bonds are formed by elements because all the elements want to achieve the inert gas configuration.
  • Ionic compounds are usually crystalline solids because oppositely charged ions attract each other very strongly.
  • Ionic compounds are hard and brittle. They have high melting and boiling points.
  • Ionic compounds are generally soluble in water and can conduct electricity.
  • Ionic compounds do not conduct electricity in the solid state because the movement of ions in the solid-state is not possible due to their rigid structure. They can only conduct electricity when dissolved in water or melted.
  • Examples of ionic bonds are NaCl, CaOCl2.

The Occurrence of Metals and Their Extraction

  • The elements or compounds which occur naturally in earth’s crust are known as minerals. Those minerals from which metals can be extracted conveniently and profitably are called ores.
  • All the ores are minerals but all the minerals are not ores.
  • Potassium, sodium, calcium, magnesium are top in the reactivity series, therefore, are highly reactive. Metals like zinc, iron, lead are in the middle of the reactivity series and are moderately reactive. Metals such as gold, platinum, silver, mercury are low in the reactivity series and thus are least reactive metals.
  • The metals on the top of the reactivity series are highly reactive, the metals which are in between of the reactivity series are moderately reactive and the metal which are in the last of reactivity series are least reactive.
  • The process in which the carbonate ore is heated strongly in the absence of air to convert it into metal oxide is called calcination. The calcination is used in the extraction of metals in the middle of the reactivity series.
  • The process in which sulphide ore is heated strongly in the presence of air to convert it into metal oxide is called roasting, it is also used in the extraction of metals that are middle in the reactivity series.
  • Metals that are low in reactivity series are converted into metals by just heating their oxides in the presence of air.
  • Metals that are on the top in the reactivity series are extracted with the help of electrolysis.
  • Electrolytic refining means refining (purification) of metals by electrolysis.
  • The process in which metals are eaten up gradually by the action of air, moisture or chemicals on their surface is called corrosion.
  • Corrosion can be prevented by galvanising, painting, by making alloys etc.
  • Alloys are homogeneous mixtures of two or more metals or a metal and a nonmetal. An alloy of metal is done to improve its properties.
  • Iron is never used in the pure state because pure iron is very soft and stretches easily when hot. Alloys of iron are called steel.
  • Iron alloyed with a small amount of carbon is called carbon steel which is hard and strong.
  • If iron is alloyed with nickel and chromium is called stainless steel which is hard and corrosion-resistant.

Exercise Discussion Of Xam Idea Class 10 Science Solutions Chapter 3: Metals and Non-Metals

Very Short Answer Type Questions

There are a total of 25 questions in this section and each question carries 1 mark. In these, you have to answer in 20-30 words. Why metals are good conductors of electricity, what happens when calcium is treated with water, why graphite is used in making electrodes are some of the examples of the questions that are discussed in this particular section. The questions cover each and every topic of the chapter.

Short Answer Type Questions-l

This section contains 41 questions, each carrying 3 marks. All the questions are important from the exam point of view. The questions are like you have to give examples of metals that are good conductors of heat and electricity, why metals except magnesium and manganese do not react with nitric acid, why metals replace hydrogen from dilute acids but not from non-metals etc. This section of questions also includes NCERT Exemplar questions for your better preparation.

Long Answer Type Questions

There are a total of 10 questions in this section and each question carries 5 marks. All the questions are designed in simple language. Difference between covalent and ionic bond, why hydrogen is considered as a metal, how can we prove that silver is chemically less reactive than copper is some of the questions that are given in this section. This section also includes activity-based questions.

HOTS (High Order Thinking Skills)

The total number of questions in this section is 8 and each question is in the form of two or more parts. In this section, you have to identify the metals or their properties from the hints that are given in the question. You can have a question like A, B, C are three metals and A forms a basic oxide, B is most reactive and C is least reactive, Now identify them and give their reactivity order.

Value-Based Questions

This section only includes three questions which are based on the activities or experiments that are done in the chapter. In addition, you also have to tell which value you have learned from that question.

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