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Xam Idea Class 10 Science Chapter 4 Solutions: Carbon And Its Compounds

Xam Idea Class 10 Science Solutions for Chapter 4 ‘Carbon and its Compounds’ will definitely help you in Class 10 board exams. The solutions aim to stimulate your learning by giving a variety of techniques to answer different questions. Further, the solutions also help you in developing your skills and knowledge related to Chemistry. All the solutions are made in a simple and methodical way. All the basic concepts of the chapter such as carbon and its physical properties, nature of carbon, covalent bonds, organic compound, saturated and unsaturated hydrocarbons, isomers, homologous series, and functional groups are explained in a proper way. The Xam Idea solutions also cover ethanol, ethanoic acid, all the chemical properties of carbon, soaps, detergents and micelle formation.

Xam Idea Class 10 Science Solutions for Carbon and its Compounds are based on the latest syllabus as per the CBSE and NCERT. The exercises part is divided into 5 sections with 105 questions in total. The exercises contain a variety of questions such as very short answer type questions, long answer type questions, HOTS etc for your practice. The questions and solutions cover all the topics of the chapter. The solutions will help you to recapitulate the whole chapter in minutes.

Instasolv is the perfect guide for you during board exams as it provides you with all the important solutions of the chapter. The Xam Idea Class 10 Science solutions are developed in a simple and lucid way, enriched with many examples for better and quick understanding. The solutions provided by Instasolv will help you to link the textual knowledge with practical life. By opting Instasolv, you do not have to search for any other good study resource.

Important Topics Of Xam Idea Class 10 Science Solutions Chapter 4 Carbon and its Compounds

The chapter elaborates with the properties of carbon. Tetravalent Nature of carbon, catenation, allotropes of carbon, covalent bonding in carbon compounds, saturated and unsaturated carbon compounds, chains branches and rings structure of carbon compounds, isomers of carbon, functional group, homologous series, the nomenclature of carbon compounds. It also includes chemical properties of carbon such as combustion, oxidation, addition reaction, substitution reaction, properties of ethanol and ethanoic acid., soaps and detergents, why detergent is better than soaps etc.

Introduction

  • Carbon is an element. It is a non- metal. Carbon is the main constituent of coal.
  • The atomic number of carbon is 6 and its electronic configuration is 2, 4. It requires 4 electrons to achieve the inert gas configuration but carbon does not form ionic bond.,
  • The bond by mutual sharing of electron pairs between two atoms in a molecule is known as a covalent bond.
  • Carbon forms covalent bonds. A single covalent bond, double covalent bond, triple covalent bond are some variations of a covalent bond.
  • Carbon has a large number of compounds because of catenation, small size, great strength, and tetravalent nature.
  • The self linking property of an element mainly carbon atom through covalently bonding to form long straight chains, branched rings etc is called catenation.
  • Valency of carbon is 4 and therefore carbon is called tetravalent in nature as there are 4 bonds which can be made by each atom of carbon.
  • The compounds which are generally made up of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen are called organic compounds whereas inorganic compounds do not have carbon or hydrogen.

Hydrocarbons

  • Hydrocarbons are compounds which are made up of hydrogen and carbon only.
  • A hydrocarbon in which the carbon atoms are connected by single bonds is called saturated hydrocarbon. They are also known as Alkanes. The general formula of alkanes is CnH2n+2.
  • Hydrocarbons in which carbon atoms are connected by a double or triple bond then it is called unsaturated hydrocarbons.
  • The one having double bonds are called Alkenes and the ones having triple bonds are called Alkynes.
  • The general formula of Alkenes is CnH2n and for Alkynes is CnH2n-2.
  • The compounds having the same molecular formula but different structures are called Isomers and the phenomenon is known as Isomerism.
  • Series of organic compounds having similar chemical properties and in which the successive members differ by CH2 group then it is called Homologous series.
  • All the members of a homologous series are represented by the same general formula and difference in their molecular masses is 14.

Functional Groups

A functional group is an atom or a group of atoms which makes a carbon compound reactive and decides its properties or functions. There are mainly 5 Functional groups in our syllabus.

  1. Halogen Group: When any halogen group is attached with alkanes they form haloalkanes or halogens.  General Formula- CnH2n+1X  ( where X= Fluorine, chlorine, iodine)
  2. Alcohol (-OH): It is called the hydroxyl group and when this group is attached to carbon atoms, they are named as alcohols.  General Formula- CnH2n+1 OH
  3. Aldehyde (-CHO): When an aldehyde group is attached to carbon atoms it is called alkyl group. General Formula- CnH2nO
  4. Ketones (-CO): Ketone group always occurs in the middle of the carbon chain and a ketone must contain at least 3 carbons atoms in a molecule. General Formula- CnH2nO
  5. Carboxylic Acid (-COOH): When an acid group is attached to carbon atoms then it is referred to as Carboxylic Acids. General Formula- CnH2n+1 COOH

Chemical Properties Of Carbon Compounds

  • Combustion- The process of burning carbon compounds in the air to give CO2, heat, light, water is called combustion. Saturated Hydrocarbons burn with a blue flame in the presence of a sufficient supply of oxygen. In the presence of a limited supply of air, it gives a lot of sooty flames and black smoke and unsaturated carbons burn with a yellow flame.
  • Oxidation- The process in which alcohols are converted to carboxylic acids by oxidizing them is called oxidation. Ethanol is heated in the presence of potassium permanganate to form ethanoic acid.
  • Addition reactions– Addition reactions are a characteristic property of unsaturated carbons. In this reaction, ethene is converted into ethane and hydrogenation of oils are an important part of additional reactions.
  • Substitution reactions- Saturated Hydrocarbons undergo substitution reaction with chlorine in the presence of sunlight. In this reaction, one or more atoms of hydrogen are replaced by chlorine atoms.

Ethanol And Ethanoic Acid

  • Ethanol is a colourless, inflammable fuming liquid.
  • It is miscible with water in all proportions and has no effect on litmus paper.
  • Ethanol reacts with sodium to form sodium ethoxide and hydrogen gas.
  • Dehydration of alcohol means the removal of water molecules from alcohol in the presence of concentrated H2SO4.
  • Ethanoic acid is also known as acetic acid and the melting point of ethanoic acid is 290 K and therefore it often freezes in cold climates.
  • It turns blue litmus to red and has a pungent smell.
  • Ethanoic acid reacts with ethanol to form a sweet-smelling substance called an ester.
  • Ethanoic acid reacts with sodium carbonates and bicarbonates to form sodium ethanoate.

Soap And Detergents

  • Sodium or potassium salts of long chains of fatty acids are called soap.
  • Ammonium or sulphonates salts of long chains of fatty acids are called detergents.
  • Water that does not produce lather or foam with soap is called hard water whereas the water which produces foam with soap is called soft water.
  • Soap does not react with hard water but detergent reacts with hard as well as soft water.

Exercise Discussion of Xam Idea Class 10 Science Solutions Chapter 4 Carbon and its Compounds

Very Short Answer Type Questions

There are a total of 31 questions in this section and each question carries 1 mark. In this section, you have to draw the structure of any compound or name them. Tell the number of covalent bonds in propane, which element exhibits the property of catenation, give the functional group (-OH), what is the molecular formula of methane or ethanol are some examples of questions that are discussed in this section.

Short Answer Type Questions

This section includes 47 questions in all and each question carries 3 marks. What is a covalent bond, what type of bond exists between CCl4, why are unsaturated hydrocarbons more reactive than saturated hydrocarbons, what is oxidation or addition, which gas is evolved when ethanoic acid reacts with sodium carbonate are some of the examples of questions that are discussed in this particular section.

Long Answer Type Questions

There are a total of 13 questions in this section and each question carries 5 marks. In this section, you will find questions like what is the difference between soaps and detergents, name the different hydrocarbons, what are esters and what is esterification. This section also includes practical based questions.

HOTS

There are a total of 9 questions in this section and all the questions are important from the exam point of view. Two compounds have same molecular formula C3H6O then what is the difference between them, why the use of synthetic detergents is not good, name the different structural formula forester are some examples of questions that are discussed under this section

Value-Based Questions

This section has 5 questions in all which are based on daily life. Further, in these questions, you have to answer the basic values that they have learnt from the questions. Name the structural formula of soap that we use in daily life is the example of the question.

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