Xam Idea Class 12 Biology Chapter 11 Solutions: Biotechnology : Principles And Processes

Xam Idea Class 12 Biology Solutions Chapter 11 ‘Biotechnology: Principles And Processes’ is a well-organized practice material for Class 12 CBSE exam preparation. Our solutions explain in detail the principles of Biotechnology i.e. Genetic Engineering and Bioprocess Engineering. You will learn about the tools of recombinant DNA technology such as Enzymes, Ligases, Polymerase enzymes. You will also learn about the Fragmentation of DNA, isolation of desired DNA, ligation of DNA fragments into vectors, transferring the rDNA and culturing the host cells.

Our Xam Idea Class 12 Biology Solutions have 154 questions in total and are separated into three sections. These questions have been settled as per the difficulty level. The simple questions are included in the Very Short question-answers section, intermediate level questions are covered in the Short Answers section and the comprehension questions are in the Long Answer section. The questions are based on important topics such as artificial recombinant DNA molecules, palindromic nucleotide sequences, recombinant proteins, cloning vectors, selectable markers, gene cloning, vector gene transfer, and plasmids. Practising these questions regularly will help you fetch more marks in the CBSE Class 12 Biology board exam.

We provide you with stepwise detailed Xam Idea Class 12 Biology solutions in a comprehensive manner. We have drafted these solutions in order to help you make a grip over the principles and processes of Biotechnology. You just solve your doubts and queries with our solutions, you will definitely find ease while solving them, and importantly you will be able to manage your time effectively, which will help you in stressful situations while in an exam.

 Important Topics of Xam Idea Class 12 Biology Solutions Chapter 11 Biotechnology: Principles And Processes

You must be aware that Biotechnology is the broad area of biology that uses the properties of living organisms and their components, and helps in the production of new technologies, inventions, modifications and produce useful products for human well-being.

Principles of Biotechnology- In Biotechnology, usually, there are two important principles to study.

Genetic Engineering- It involves the change in the genes or DNA Sequences, by alteration in the phenotype of organisms.

Bioprocess Engineering- It involves the design and development of equipment for the production of new products such as agriculture, food, pharmaceuticals, vaccines, antibodies, and so on.

Techniques of Genetic Engineering- It possesses several techniques some of them are given here.

  • The isolation of the DNA fragments from the donor organism.
  • Recombinant DNA cloning in the host organism.
  • Insertion into the vector DNA.
  • Transferring the rDNA in the appropriate host cells.

Recombinant DNA Molecules-

As the name suggests, the recombinant DNA technology is the technique or you can say, a process that involves the combination of two or more DNA molecules from different organisms. It is also known as Genetic Engineering.

Here we are discussing several steps involved in the process of Recombinant DNA molecules-

  • Isolation of DNA molecules.
  • The fragmentation of DNA molecules by restriction endonucleases.
  • Ligation of desired DNA fragments into the vectors.
  • Transferring the recombinant DNA molecules into the host.
  • Culturing the host cells.
  • Extract the desired product

DNA Cloning-

DNA cloning is a widely used technique for making multiple exact copies of DNA molecules. This process used cloning vectors which possess various properties that are listed below-

  • Should be smaller in size, but should have an ability to hold the large-sized DNA.
  • Cloning vectors must have restriction sites..
  • Must have the origin of replication
  • Must possess Selectable markers.
  • It should have multiple cloning sites.


It’s a device used for manufacturing products such as pharmaceuticals, vaccines, antibodies. Under controlled conditions, it is an apparatus for growing organisms such as yeast, bacteria, fungi, etc. it can also convert raw material to the desired byproduct.

Exercise Discussion of Xam Idea Class 12 Biology Solutions Chapter 11 Biotechnology: Principles And Processes

Let’s discuss what type of questions are given in this chapter-

Very Short Answer Type Questions-

  • This section will give you around 42 problems with their solutions, and separated into further two parts PYQ (past years questions) and OIQ (objective inventory questionnaires). 
  • These questions are simple and direct, usually involving definitions and a one-word answer. You just solve them, it will give you a brief intro of the chapter.
  • In the PYQ part, there are 15 questions generally based on Recombinant DNA, cloning vectors, the action of restriction enzymes, and so on.
  • While in the OIQ part, you will find 27 questions that are using concepts like plasmids, Bioreactors, Electrophoresis, Palindromes, restriction enzymes, and so on.

Short Answer Questions Type I-

  • Herein, you will have a total of 60 questions, and they are divided into PYQ and OIQ parts. Both of them have 30-30 questions, which are quite complex compared to the very short ones. You just need to be careful quite a bit, to tackle them.
  • In the PYQ part, you will have questions based on Palindromic Nucleotide Sequences, Recombinant DNA technology, Natural Source of Agarose, Cloning Sites, Recombinant Proteins, etc. 
  • Whereas the OIQ part will give you questions on genetic engineering, gene cloning, rDNA, cDNA, lysing enzyme, vector less gene transfer, competent cells, downstream processes, and its uses.

Short Answer Questions Type II-

  • Short Answer Questions Type II, provides you with 40 questions in total categorized into two parts. 
  • The First Part consists of 33 questions and the second part has 7 questions. 
  • All of them will help you understand the important concepts that are included in this chapter.
  • You will have questions on ligation of DNA fragments into vectors, on selectable markers, genes encoding resistance, the significance of palindromic nucleotide sequences, Ti plasmids, pBR322 plasmid, PCR, ELISA, and so on.
  • In one of the questions, you need to highlight the role of biolistic guns in Biotechnology experiments.
  • Also, a question at which you need to do the amplification of a gene sample using PCR reaction.
  • Apart from this, a question at which you will be asked to draw your views in a sparged-tank Bioreactor, and also you need to write the application of it.

Long Answer Questions –

  • This section has only 12 problems. 6 questions in the PYQ part and the rest 6 are in the OIQ part. 
  • These questions are quite lengthy and tricky to solve. All you need to do is just go through each and every aspect of this chapter before dealing with it.
  • In 6 questions of the PYQ part, you will be asked to describe the role of vectors in recombinant DNA technology, characteristics of cloning vectors, Amplification of DNA signals, and so on.
  • While in the OIQ part, you will be asked to write the steps for the construction of recombinant DNA, to describe the temperature treatment that enhances the bacteria to take up the rDNA, and so on.

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