Xam Idea Class 12 Chemistry Chapter 10 Solutions: Haloalkanes And Haloarenes
Xam Idea Class 12 Chemistry Solutions Chapter 10 – Haloalkanes and Haloarenes are curated by the best of Chemistry teachers. They have been prepared on the basis of the latest Xam Idea Class 12 Chemistry Solutions Syllabus. This chapter from organic chemistry is very important from the point of view of board examination and different competitive exams.
This chapter teaches you about carbon compounds containing one or more halogen atoms, known as haloalkanes/haloarenes. You learn their structure and nomenclature, chemical reactions involved in their preparation and reactions shown by them with other reagents. This chapter further imparts knowledge about correlating the structures of haloalkanes and haloarenes to various reactions, using stereochemistry as a tool to understand the mechanisms of reactions shown by them. This chapter also deals with organometallic compounds and effects of polyhalogen compounds on the environment.
Part A of Xam Idea Class 12 Chemistry Solutions Chapter 10 – Haloalkanes and Haloarenes contain the stepwise and detailed conceptual explanations along with a variety of questions. This section asks very short answer questions, short answer questions and long answer questions. This section also helps you understand the mark allocation of each type of question asked fro exam point of view. These questions test your memory skills, analytical skills and higher-order thinking skills. There are many objective types, fill in the blanks type, match the following type questions asked at the end of the chapter.
Important Topics Xam Idea Class 12 Chemistry Solutions Chapter 10 – Haloalkanes and Haloarenes
Our Xam Idea Class 12 Chemistry Solutions Chapter 10 – Haloalkanes and Haloarenes cover all the concepts about haloalkanes and haloarenes. Our solutions are a holistic learning guide and make learning an easy and fast process. The components of the chapter have been explained below.
- Classification of Halogen Containing Carbon Compounds
This part of the chapter teaches you that the carbon compounds containing halogens are classified on the basis of the number of halogens atoms attached to the carbon atom as mono-, di-, or polyhalogen compounds. This classification is necessary to study its chemical and physical properties.
- Compounds containing Carbon – Halogen bond
This part of the chapter tells you that alkyl halides, allylic halides and benzylic halides are the compounds which have sp3 carbon attached to halogen. The compounds which contain sp2 carbon attached to halogen are the vinyl halides and aryl halides. Our Xam Idea Class 12 Chemistry Solutions Chapter 10 – Haloalkanes and Haloarenes help you gain in-depth knowledge about the subject matter.
This part of the chapter teaches you about the rules for giving IUPAC names to the haloalkanes and haloarenes. The general formula for haloalkanes can be given as CnH2n+1X (Where, X = F, Cl, Br).
- Nature of C-X Bond
This section of the chapter tells you that a carbon atom and halogen atom has different values of electronegativity. This part of the chapter also discusses that C-X bond is polarized because there is an electronegativity difference between halogen atom and carbon atom, halogen being more electronegative bears a partial negative charge and the carbon atom carries a partial positive charge. Here you will also learn that this polarized nature of C-X bond makes the haloalkanes very reactive compounds.
Further, you will learn that In Aromatic compounds the electron pair shared in C-X bond is involved in the resonance of aromatic ring and thus carries a double bond character which makes it less reactive towards nucleophilic substitution reactions. Our Xam Idea Class 12 Chemistry Solutions Chapter 10 – Haloalkanes and Haloarenes explains all the reasons behind the chemical reactions in a detailed manner. These definitely help you answer all the questions effectively.
- Methods of Preparation
Here you come to learn different methods of preparation of alkyl and aryl halides from different starting materials. Alcohols are converted to alkyl halides by replacing the alcoholic group by different halogens by using different halogen-containing reagents such as phosphorus halides, sodium halides, thionyl chloride etc.
Here you will also learn that Alkyl halides can also be synthesized by free radical halogenation of hydrocarbons. Alkenes are also used to obtain alkyl halides by adding hydrogen halides/halogens to double bond of an alkene. Fluorides and iodides are often prepared by various halogen exchange methods.
Further, you will learn that Aryl chlorides and bromides can be prepared by an electrophilic substitution reaction of arenes with respective halogens. This section also tells you that Sandmeyer’s reaction converts aryl amines to aryl halides. Our Xam Idea Class 12 Chemistry Solutions Chapter 10 – Haloalkanes and Haloarenes are effective and exhaustive study material for holistic preparation of halogen-containing carbon compounds.
- Physical Properties
This section of the chapter tells you that the physical properties of organic compounds are very important and are characteristic of a group of compounds. Here you learn that haloalkanes are colourless in their pure state, and some may possess a sweet smell. These are slightly soluble in water but soluble fully in organic solvents.
- Chemical Reactions
This part of the chapter teaches you about the chemical reactions of haloalkanes and haloarenes.
- Reactions of haloalkanes
This part of the chapter teaches you that the haloalkanes show nucleophilic substitution reaction due to the polar nature of C-X bond. These also undergo elimination reactions and reaction with metals. This part further tells you that nucleophilic substitution reactions proceed through two different reaction mechanisms, depending upon their kinetic properties, substitution nucleophilic bimolecular (SN2) and substitution nucleophilic bimolecular (SN1). Our Xam Idea Class 12 Chemistry Solutions Chapter 10 – Haloalkanes and Haloarenes describes all the concepts in detail and hence prepare you thoroughly for Class 12 board exams.
Here you will learn the stereochemical aspects of products obtained after nucleophilic substitution reactions help in understanding the reaction mechanisms of SN1 and SN2 reactions in chiral alkyl halides. The SN1 mechanism is characterized by racemization, whereas the SN2 mechanism is identified by inversion of configuration. You will also learn that the order of reactivity of alkyl halides towards SN2 increases in the order tertiary halide < secondary halide < primary halide < CH3X. For SN1, it is exactly the other way. This portion further discusses the reaction of alkyl halides with metals to give organometallic compounds, which contain C-M bonds.
- Reactions of Haloarenes
This part of the chapter tells you that aryl halides are extremely less reactive towards nucleophilic substitution reactions because of the resonance effect prevailing in the benzene ring. The state of hybridization of carbon atom is also different in aryl halides which is sp2 in aryl halides and sp3 in alkyl halides.
Further, you will learn that they undergo replacement of halogen atom by a hydroxyl group, electrophilic substitution reaction at ring carbon atoms and reaction with metals. Our Xam Idea Class 12 Chemistry Solutions Chapter 10 – Haloalkanes and Haloarenes are an extremely effective study tool for learning as well as revision during exams.
- Polyhalogen Compounds
This part of the chapter introduces you to the polyhalogen compounds, which are carbon compounds containing more than one halogen atom of the same or different kind. Some of the polyhalogen compounds, e.g., DDT, freon, dichloromethane, chloroform, iodoform and carbon tetrachloride, have many industrial uses. Some of these compounds, called chlorofluouro carbons cannot be decomposed easily and cause depletion of the ozone layer proving to be environmental hazards.
Exercise Discussion for Xam Idea Class 12 Chemistry Solutions Chapter 10 – Haloalkanes and Haloarenes
Part A of our Xam Idea Solutions Chapter 10 contains different questions after covering the detailed summary of concepts of the chapter. The questions are of different types, such as very short answer questions (VSAQ), and short answer questions (SAQ). All of these carry different weightage. Some questions are multiple-choice questions, direct questions, fill in the blank questions, value-based question and description-based question. They test your analytical, memory and higher-order thinking skills.
This chapter has 27 VSAQs based on IUPAC nomenclature of compounds, mechanism of nucleophilic substitution/elimination reaction, arranging the given compounds according to their reactivity towards SN1/SN2 reactions, reactivity difference of alkyl and aryl halides, elimination reaction, preparation of Iodobuatne, ambident nucleophile.
After this, there are 44 SAQs. Which ask you to give IUPAC nomenclature of compounds, draw the isomers, tell about the reaction conditions to bring about given chemical conversions, uses of polyhalogen compounds, products of given reactions along with word problem on reactions of alkyl halides and aryl halides and some named reactions. Our Xam Idea Class 12 Chemistry Solutions Chapter 10 – Haloalkanes and Haloarenes include detail explanations for all the questions. They provide you with relevant examples to help you learn efficiently.
Part B of our Xam Idea Class 12 Chemistry Solutions Chapter 9 consists of fully solved sample question papers, model questions papers, previous year question papers and other exemplar questions. After going through the questions given in part A of the solutions, it is suggested that you also solve these questions so that you can learn more efficiently.
Benefits of Xam Idea Class 12 Chemistry Solutions Chapter 10 – Haloalkanes and Haloarenes
Our Xam Idea Class 12 Chemistry Chapter 10 – Haloalkanes and Haloarenes is very helpful for you. Some of the advantages are as follows.
- Our solutions give you a clear idea of all the question types asked in your exams.
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- Our solutions precisely answer all the questions, making them helpful in every manner.
- These solutions are based on the guidelines provided by CBSE and NCERT.
- They are fun, interactive, interesting and make the learning process more efficient.
- Our solutions provide you with suitable examples for the concepts learnt so that you remember them well.
- They are an excellent reference tool for learning and revision during the exam so that you can score high in your Class 12 board exams and successfully crack various competitive exams.
- Our solutions have been drafted to help you keep your concepts clear and build a sound conceptual foundation.
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