Xam Idea Class 12 Chemistry Chapter 11 Solutions: Alcohols, Phenols And Ethers
Our all-inclusive Xam Idea Class 12 Chemistry Solutions Chapter 11 – Alcohols, Phenols and Ethers cover one of the most important topics from organic chemistry. They enable you to achieve a brilliant score in your Xam Idea Class 12 Chemistry Solutions board exam. They have been prepared by subject experts according to the latest and updated CBSE Class 12 Chemistry Syllabus. Our solutions contain a variety of question types to help you become thorough with the topic of oxygen-containing functional groups in hydrocarbon compounds.
Our solutions are a carefully drafted set of answers to the questions asked in chapter alcohols, phenols and ethers. In this chapter, you will learn IUPAC nomenclature of alcohols, phenols and ethers. Further, you will learn the reactions involved in the preparation of alcohols from alkenes, aldehydes, ketones and carboxylic acids and the reactions involved in the preparation of phenols from haloarenes, benzene sulphonic acids, diazonium salts and cumene.
Further, you learn the methods of preparation of ethers starting from alcohols, alkyl halides and sodium alkoxides/aryloxides. You also learn how to correlate the physical properties of alcohols, phenols and ethers with their structures and discuss chemical reactions of these classes of compounds on the basis of their functional groups.
Important Topics for Xam Idea Class 12 Chemistry Solutions Chapter 11 – Alcohols, Phenols and Ethers
Xam Idea Class 12 Chemistry Solutions Chapter 11 – Alcohols, Phenols and Ethers include all the concepts related to the topic elaboratively. The main points given in this chapter are given below.
This chapter teaches you that depending upon the number of hydroxyl groups present in the structure, alcohols and phenols may be classified as mono–, di–, tri- or polyhydric alcohols. The -OH group is attached to sp3 hybridised carbon atoms in primary, secondary, tertiary, allylic and benzylic alcohols. When the -OH group is attached to sp2 hybridised carbon atom, the alcohols are known as vinylic alcohols and phenols. Here you will also learn that Ethers can be symmetrical also known as simple or asymmetrical (mixed) depending on whether the two alkyls, two aryl or alkyl aryl groups attached to an oxygen atom are the same or different respectively.
This part of the chapter tells about the IUPAC rules to name alcohols, phenols and ethers. Xam Idea Class 12 Chemistry Solutions Chapter 11 – Alcohols, Phenols and Ethers teach you the best methods for naming hydroxylic compounds.
- Structures of Functional Groups
This part of the chapter discusses the bond angles and bond length of the C-O bond in these compounds and the factors influencing them. The position of the hydroxyl group and hybridisation state of the carbon atom to which it is attached dictate the reactivity of alcohols.
- Preparation of Alcohols and Phenols
Here, you learn about various methods of preparing alcohol. Alcohols may be prepared from an alkene by its hydration in the presence of an acid or by the hydroboration-oxidation reaction, also from carbonyl compounds by catalytic reduction and the action of Grignard reagents. Further, you come to know that phenols may be prepared by substitution of a halogen atom, in haloarenes or sulfonic acid group in aryl sulfonic acids, by –OH group. Phenols can also be prepared by hydrolysis of diazonium salts and from cumene (industrial scale).
- Physical Properties
Physical properties of hydroxy compounds are guided by the -OH group which has strong capability of forming hydrogen bonds. This part of the chapter discusses that alcohols show higher boiling and greater solubility in water compared to other classes of compounds having comparable molecular masses. The reason behind the special behaviour is the ability of alcohols, phenols and ethers to form intermolecular hydrogen bonding with self and water molecules. Our Xam Idea Class 12 Chemistry Solutions Chapter 11 – Alcohols, Phenols and Ethers explain all the concepts in an elaborate manner.
- Chemical Reactions
This part of the chapter tells you that alcohols are versatile chemical compounds. These can act as both electrophilic and nucleophilic reagents. Alcohols and phenols show acidic character due to the polar nature of the O-H bond. Here you will also learn that alcohols react with metals to give sodium alkoxides with the evolution of hydrogen gas, and phenols react with reactive metals to give respective phenoxides. Further, you will learn that electron-withdrawing groups attached to phenyl rings increase, whereas electron releasing groups decrease the acidic strength. Alcohols and phenols react with carboxylic acids, acid chlorides, and acid anhydrides to yield esters.
This part of the chapter further tells that alcohols undergo nucleophilic substitution with hydrogen halides to give alkyl halides. Alcohols undergo dehydration to give alkenes. There is a difference in reactivity of primary, secondary and tertiary alcohols. Here you will also learn that primary alcohols undergo oxidation with mild oxidising agents to provide aldehydes and with strong oxidising agents to give carboxylic acids. Secondary alcohols yield ketones when oxidised with strong oxidation agents. Tertiary alcohols do not undergo oxidation reactions. This becomes the basis of differentiating these three types of alcohols.
Our Xam Idea Solutions Chapter 11 – Alcohols, Phenols and Ethers provide necessary tips and techniques to remember all the named chemical reactions and their characteristic features.
- Reactions of Phenols
This part of the chapter teaches you the reactions of phenol. In these compounds, the -OH group is attached to ring carbon, which is sp2 hybridised, and hence reactivity differs from alcohols. Here you will also learn that Hydroxyl group in phenols activates the aromatic ring for electrophilic substitution reactions due to resonance effect and also directs the incoming groups to 1- and 4- positions.
Next, you come to know about some named reactions. This section tells you that Phenols undergo the Reimer-Tiemann reaction to produce salicylaldehyde. Phenol undergoes Kolbe’s reaction in basic medium. Reactivity of phenol increases in the presence of NaOH as phenol is converted to phenoxide ion. Phenol undergoes oxidation to give benzoquinone. Our Xam Idea Class 12 Chemistry Solutions Chapter 11 – Alcohols, Phenols and Ethers covers this topic in a holistic manner and help you remember them well.
- Preparation, physical and Chemical Properties of Ethers
This part of the chapter talks about the methods of preparation of ethers like dehydration of alcohols in the presence of acids and Williamson synthesis. The boiling points of ethers resemble those of alkanes, while their solubility is comparable to those of alcohols having the same molecular mass. Here you will also learn that the physical properties of ethers differ from alcohols as they do not form effective intramolecular/intermolecular hydrogen bonds. The ethers have a net dipole moment as C-O bonds are polar.
Next, you learn about the chemical reactions of others. Ethers are the least reactive. The C–O bond in ethers can be cleaved by hydrogen halides. Simple ether provides a single product on hydrolysis, while mixed ethers give a mixture of compounds depending upon the groups attached to an oxygen atom. This section also tells you that the alkoxy group activates the aromatic ring and directs the incoming group to 1- and 4- positions during the electrophilic substitution of aryl ethers.
Our Xam Idea Class 12 Chemistry Solutions Chapter 11 – Alcohols, Phenols and Ethers are the best study material for learning these concepts as well as revising them during exam preparation.
Exercise Discussion of Xam Idea Class 12 Chemistry Solutions Chapter 11 – Alcohols, Phenols and Ethers
After the description of the concepts related to this topic, the chapter asks you to solve different questions. The questions are divided according to the marks allotted to them. Some of the question types are very short answer (VSA) questions, short answer (SA) questions, and long answer questions (LA). These questions may be objective type, fill in the blanks, match the following type, assertion-reasoning type among others.
This chapter includes diversified questions based on remembering and understanding; higher-order thinking skills (HOTS); concept application and value application; and analytical skill application. Our Xam Idea Class 12 Chemistry Solutions Chapter 11 – Alcohols, Phenols and Ethers aim to provide you with the best answers to these questions.
This chapter has 21 VSAQs which are based on IUPAC nomenclature of alcohols, converting names to structures and vice versa, preparation methods of phenols and ethers, reaction mechanisms, telling products and reaction conditions, structures and names of isomers and named reactions.
Further, there are 47 SAQs which ask direct questions on isomeric alcohols, you provide equations for chemical reaction, write the mechanism of given chemical reactions, provide the steps for synthesis of given compounds.
At last, there are 7 LAQs asking you to mention properties of phenol, about the reaction conditions to bring about chemical conversions involving hydroxy compounds, limitations of Williamson’s synthesis, products of named reactions.
After solving the above questions, you should refer to our solutions for other questions given in part A like NCERT and exemplar questions and other important questions of previous years’ examinations. Further, you should solve the latest CBSE sample papers, model question papers and previous year’s examination papers fully solved in Part B of our solutions. You should solve all these thoroughly, as practising would make you learn all the concepts in a better way.
Benefits of Xam Idea Class 12 Chemistry Solutions Chapter 11 – Alcohols, Phenols and Ethers
The process of learning and revising from our Xam Idea Class 12 Chemistry Solutions Chapter 11 – Alcohols, Phenols and Ethers are highly beneficial for you. Some of the advantages are as follows.
- They are easy to understand as they are drafted in a simple language.
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- They help you to perform exceptionally well in your board exams and prepare well for the competitive exams you are planning to take.