Xam Idea Class 12 Chemistry Chapter 14 Solutions: Biomolecules
Our Xam Idea Class 12 Chemistry Solutions Chapter 14 – Biomolecules cover concepts that join the knowledge of Chemistry and Biology. They are useful to understand the functioning of our body systems. Our team of well-experienced Chemistry teachers have designed and prepared these Xam Idea Solutions. These are a hundred per cent accurate and well-written solutions for all your study needs. Referring to these solutions will help you achieve a high score in your Class 12 board exam.
Part A of our solutions describes the main ideas and concepts of the chapter. There are several questions given at the end after the fundamental concepts of each chapter is explained. Some questions are very short answer questions, and some are short answer questions. The questions are of different types such as matching the columns questions, fill in the blanks questions, multiple-choice questions and assertion reasoning type questions. In Part B, you will find detailed solutions for sample questions papers based on the latest CBSE exam pattern. Part A and Part B together comprehensively and holistically cover all the concepts taught in this chapter.
This chapter deals with various complex chemical entities known as biomolecules as the key components of living systems. The important biomolecules are carbohydrates, proteins, nucleic acids and hormones. This chapter also classifies carbohydrates, proteins nucleic acids and vitamins on the basis of their structures and discusses their physical and chemical properties. The difference between DNA and RNA in terms of their components has also been discussed. Our solutions are prepared using the best contents on these topics and help you to score good marks in class 12 examination.
Important Topics for Xam Idea Class 12 Chemistry Chapter 14 – Biomolecules
Our Xam Idea Class 12 Chemistry Solutions Chapter 14 – Biomolecules cover all the concepts given in the chapter. Biomolecules are basic entities of life. They build up the living system and are responsible for their growth and maintenance. The outline of the concepts covered in this chapter has been given below.
This section of the chapter teaches you that the optically active polyhydroxy aldehydes (aldoses) or ketones (ketoses) or compounds which on hydrolysis give these units are known as carbohydrates. They are also called saccharides. This part of the chapter tells you that carbohydrates are the large group of naturally available organic compounds, produced by plants.
This part further teaches you about the classification of carbohydrates, where they are classified into three groups based on what they yield after hydrolysis. Polysaccharides yield a large number of simplest units on hydrolysis; oligosaccharides yield two to ten monosaccharide units on hydrolysis, and monosaccharides are the ones which cannot be hydrolysed further to give simpler units. Here you will also learn that glucose is a monosaccharide and is an important source of energy. Our Xam Idea Class 12 Chemistry Solutions Chapter 14 – Biomolecules teaches all the concepts regarding carbohydrates comprehensively.
Further, you come to know that monosaccharide can be aldoses or hexoses depending on whether they contain aldehyde or ketone groups respectively as the functional group. Monosaccharides are held together by glycosidic linkages to form disaccharides or polysaccharides. Here you also learn that there are several reactions formulated to determine the structure and properties of glucose and fructose. Based on reducing and non-reducing properties, carbohydrates are classified as reducing and non-reducing sugars.
Carbohydrates that reduce Fehling reagent or Tollen‟s reagent are termed as reducing carbohydrates such as all monosaccharides and disaccharides (except sucrose). Carbohydrates which do not reduce such reagents are known as non-reducing carbohydrates such as sucrose and polysaccharides. Here you also learn here that carbohydrates provide energy, used as storage molecules in animals and are components of cells walls of bacteria and plants. Our Xam Idea Class 12 Chemistry Solutions Chapter 14 – Biomolecules gives you confidence for solving all the related questions correctly.
Here you will learn that condensation products of many amino acids together are known as polypeptide and those polypeptides which have a molecular mass more than 10000 Daltons are called proteins. This part of the chapter also tells you that proteins form the fundamental basis of structure and functions of life. Proteins are polymers of twenty different types of α-amino acids.
Further, you learn here that proteins are classified as acidic, basic or neutral depending upon the number of amino and the carboxylic group they possess. Our body can synthesise several amino acids. There is a total of ten amino acids which cannot be synthesised in the human body and hence are called essential amino acids which must be provided through diet.
Here you will also learn that amino acids are colourless, crystalline solids soluble in water. This part of the chapter further tells you that amino acids are linked through peptide bonds in the protein molecule. Based on their structure, proteins are divided into two types called Fibrous and globular proteins. This chapter also discusses that there are four levels to study the structure and shape of proteins, primary, secondary, tertiary and quarternary. Xam Idea Class 12 Chemistry Solutions Chapter 14 – Biomolecules help you to fetch maximum marks in class 12 board exams.
You further learn that the secondary and tertiary structure of the proteins gets disturbed upon change of pH or temperature of their surrounding environment; as a result, they are not able to perform their functions, and this situation is called denaturation of proteins. Based on their hydrolysis products proteins can be classified into simple, conjugated and derived proteins. According to the different functions they do, proteins can be divided into structural proteins, enzymes, hormones, contractile proteins, antibodies and blood proteins.
This part further tells you Enzymes are biocatalysts which enhance the rate of biological reactions. They are selective and very specific in their action. Proteins perform a lot of different structural and dynamic functions in living beings. All enzymes are proteins. Xam Idea Class 12 Chemistry Solutions Chapter 14 – Biomolecules give you in-depth knowledge about protein, making the learning process very efficient.
Here you will learn that the complex organic compounds other than carbohydrates, proteins and fats which are required by the body to maintain normal health, growth and nutrition are called vitamins. This part of the chapter tells you that vitamins though required in small amount in our diet, are essential nutrients and their deficiency causes diseases in humans. Vitamins are given their names using some alphabets, A, B (this has subgroups also B2, B3, B12 etc.), C, D, E etc. Vitamins may be fat-soluble (A, D, E and K) and water-soluble (B group and C).
- Nucleic Acids
This part of the chapter teaches you that nucleic acids are the components of genetic material which transfer characters and traits from one generation to next. This part of the chapter also tells you that nucleic acids (polynucleotides) are long-chain polymers of nucleotides which in turn are made by combining a sugar molecule, a nitrogenous base and a phosphate moiety. Our Xam Idea Class 12 Chemistry Solutions Chapter 14 – Biomolecules covers the concepts of nucleic acid in a holistic manner helping you to score good marks.
Further, you learn here that there are two types of nucleic acids – DNA and RNA. The difference between DNA and RNA is that DNA contains a five-carbon sugar molecule called 2-deoxyribose, whereas RNA contains ribose sugar molecule having one oxygen atom less than deoxyribose. Here you will also learn that both DNA and RNA contain the nitrogenous bases, adenine, guanine and cytosine, but they differ in the fourth base they contain, DNA contains thymine and RNA contains uracil. RNA is a single strand molecule, whereas the structure of DNA is double-stranded.
It further tells you that DNA is the chemical base of heredity and is the actual reservoir of genetic information. It has the codes needed to synthesise proteins in the cell. There are three types of RNA — mRNA, rRNA and tRNA whose role is to carry out the protein synthesis in the cell. Our Xam Idea Class 12 Chemistry Solutions Chapter 14 – Biomolecules solve all the questions methodically and provide examples and illustration wherever required for better understanding.
Exercise Discussion for Xam Idea Class 12 Chemistry Chapter 14 – Biomolecules
After understanding all the concepts about biomolecules, you need to practice the questions asked for further clarification. There are different types of questions asked after the chapter, such as very short answer and short answer type questions. Some questions are memory-based, logic-based, reasoning based and analytical thinking-based questions. All these questions are intended to cover all the concepts taught in this chapter. A short description of the questions is given below.
This chapter contains 72 VSAQs which ask you to tell the function of carbohydrates in living beings, about monosaccharides and reducing sugars, about glycosidic linkage and glycogen, predict hydrolysis product of sugars, about essential and non-essential amino acids, about secondary structure of a protein, type of bonding in proteins and types of proteins, about amphoteric behaviour of protein, about enzymes, denaturation of proteins, about vitamins and nucleic acids.
Next, it has 44 SAQs which are related to characteristic features of biomolecules, some direct and explanatory questions based on structure, properties, typical reactions, classify sugar molecules uses and special features of carbohydrates are there. Some ask about predicting the product of D-Glucose reactions with different reagents, about sugar molecules, proteins, amino acids, nucleic acids, DNA, RNA.
All these questions are answered comprehensively in our Xam Idea Class 12 Chemistry Solutions Chapter 14 – Biomolecules. The questions discussed above give you an ample amount of practice on different concepts learnt. Part B contains answers to all the questions asked in model papers and previous year’s question papers. You are suggested to solve these also so that you get the exact idea of how question papers are framed for Class 12 board exams.
Benefits of Xam Idea Class 12 Chemistry Chapter 14 – Biomolecules
Some of the key benefits of learning and revising from Xam Idea Class 12 Chemistry Solutions Chapter 14 – Biomolecules are listed below.
- They help you understand the fundamental concepts thoroughly so that you can solve all the questions from this chapter asked in Class 12 board exams and various competitive examination papers
- Solutions of the questions are given in step by step manner to help you learn easily and effectively
- They are to the point yet descriptive as required for effective learning of biomolecules
- They imbibe the concepts well within you, helping you to practically use the same when required during higher studies
- Our smart study techniques and learning shortcuts help you learn quickly and score more marks.
- They are well-structured and follow a logical flow.
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- They help you build a strong conceptual foundation
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- Our solutions cover a wide range of question types important from exam point of view
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