Xam Idea Class 12 Chemistry Chapter 16 Solutions: Chemistry In Everyday Life
Our Xam Idea Class 12 Chemistry Solutions Chapter 16 – Chemistry in Everyday Life has been framed by our expert chemistry teachers. These strictly follow the guidelines issued by CBSE and NCERT. Our solutions provided for all the exercises help you grasp even the most complex topics easily and thoroughly. They help you build a profound conceptual foundation, score exceptionally well in your Class 12 board exams, and crack various competitive exams.
This chapter enables you to understand the importance of chemistry in daily life. Chemistry accepts the challenge to develop new substances for the advancement of human life. This chapter of Xam Idea solutions explains to you some medical terms like chemotherapy and describes the basis of the classification of drugs.
This chapter also explains the drug-target interaction of enzymes and receptors. You also come to know about the mechanism of functioning of various types of drugs in our body. You also come to know about food additives and preservatives, artificial sweetening agents and discuss the chemistry of cleaning agents and principle lying behind their action.
Important Topics for Xam Idea Class 12 Chemistry Chapter 16 – Chemistry in Everyday Life
Chemistry encompasses all the areas of human life, and the principles of chemistry have been used for the benefit of mankind. Xam Idea Class 12 Chemistry Solutions Chapter 16 – Chemistry in Everyday Life includes all the concepts of this chapter. They give you complete knowledge of the topics and subtopics. The main points given in this chapter are as follows –
- Drugs and Their Classification
This part of the chapter tells you that drugs are the low molecular weight molecules chemical agents which affects human metabolism and cure the targeted ailments when taken in prescribed doses. These medicines are used to cure different ailments. Chemotherapy is the use of chemicals for therapeutic effect, and all the drugs are nothing else but chemicals.
This part of the chapter tells you that drugs can be classified on the basis of following
- Pharmacological effects where drugs are classified according to the use,
- Drug action that is the mechanism followed by drug inside the body to produce the effect,
- The chemical structure where drugs of the same class would have a basic chemical core common in all
- Molecular targets depending on the structure of the receptors.
Our Xam Idea Class 12 Chemistry Solutions Chapter 16 – Chemistry in Everyday Life covers all the information in a comprehensive manner.
- Drug Target Interaction
This part of the chapter tells you that drugs work by interacting with the target to impart their action. Drugs act upon target biological macromolecules such as proteins, lipids, carbohydrates and nucleic acids. Enzymes responsible for biocatalysis are proteins in nature, receptors responsible for the communication system in the body are proteins.
In this part of the chapter, drug-target interaction is explained using examples of enzymes and receptors. Drugs are designed to interact with some specific targets so that they do not affect other targets, this minimizes the side effects and specifies the drug action. Our Xam Idea Class 12 Chemistry Solutions Chapter 16 – Chemistry in Everyday Life provides accurate and concise answers to all the questions related to this topic.
- Therapeutic Actions of Different Classes of Drugs
Different classes of drugs act through a different mechanism of action and based on that they are classified. This portion of the chapter teaches you regarding the main classes of drugs according to their therapeutic action.
You come to know here, that the drugs which compete with histamine molecule released by our body in response to foreign invasion, stopping its effect in the body, are known as antihistamines. Terfenadine is an example of an antihistamine drug. Antacids are the class of compounds which counter the hyperproduction of acids in the stomach. An example is a cimetidine.
Tranquillizers are neurologically active molecules intercepting the message transfer mechanism from nerve to receptor, chlordiazepoxide is a tranquillizer. Xam Idea Class 12 Chemistry Solutions Chapter 16 – Chemistry in Everyday Life help you memorize the name of drugs and their mechanism of action correctly.
Further, you learn here that analgesics are used to reduce pain without causing any neurological effect. The painkillers may be of two types – non-narcotic and narcotic. Antimicrobial medicines are those drugs which destroy or prevent development/growth of pathogens such as bacteria, viruses, fungi, other pathogens. Antibiotics are used for either checking the growth (bacteriostatic) or killing (bactericidal) the bacteria.
Here you will also learn that antiseptics and disinfectants are class of compounds which are used to kill or check the growth of microorganisms when applied on affected animate surfaces or inanimate surfaces. A substance can act both as disinfectant and antiseptic depending upon its concentrations. Antifertility drugs are the compounds which are used to control population growth. An example is norethindrone. Our Xam Idea Class 12 Chemistry Solutions Chapter 16 – Chemistry in Everyday Life help you in preparing all these topics and getting good marks in board exams.
- Chemicals in Food
Here you will learn that there are several chemicals which are added to food in order to enhance their flavour and colour and make them more palatable. This part of the chapter tells you that
food additives are added to food in order to preserve them, enhance their appeal, increasing their nutritive value, stabilizing them.
This part of the chapter tells you that, use of artificial sweetening agents has become very common, which are added to make food sweet as an alternative to natural sweeteners which increase calorie intake in the body. Food preservatives are widely used to prevent spoilage of food while manipulating various mechanisms of actions. Our Xam Idea Class 12 Chemistry Solutions Chapter 16 – Chemistry in Everyday Life is written in a methodical and descriptive manner, helping you to learn and revise effectively.
- Cleansing Agents
Here you learn that soaps are used from time immemorial to remove dirt stuck on cloth and skin. This part of the chapter tells you that detergents are the chemical compounds used for cleaning purposes. Soaps and synthetic detergents are two types of detergents. Soaps are sodium or potassium salts of long-chain fatty acids.
This part of the chapter tells you that the soaps are prepared through the process of saponification of long-chain fatty acids. There are many varieties of soaps manufactured these days. Those are toilet soaps, soaps that float on water, transparent soaps, medicated soaps, shaving soaps, scouring soaps etc. which are used according to the requirement. These are prepared by adding some additives with different properties. Our Xam Idea Class 12 Chemistry Solutions Chapter 16 – Chemistry in Everyday Life are the best study material available to learn these topics.
Here you will learn that synthetic detergents do not contain soap but show all the properties of soap. This part further tells you that synthetic detergents are classified into three main categories, namely, anionic, cationic and non-ionic, with each category having its specific uses. Here you will also learn that detergents can have a straight-chain or branched-chain fatty acid part. This section also tells you that the detergents with the straight-chain hydrocarbons are preferred over the branched-chain ones because the latter ones are non-biodegradable, causing environmental pollution.
Exercise Discussion for Xam Idea Class 12 Chemistry Chapter 16 – Chemistry in Everyday Life
In this chapter, you will find different types of questions. Some are the very short answer (VSA) questions and short answer (SA) questions. These are based on remembering and understanding; higher-order thinking skills (HOTS), application-based and value-based questions types. The questions are divided into multiple-choice, assertion reasoning, fill in the blanks, match the columns or direct questions. All of these have been dealt with in details by our Xam Idea Class 12 Chemistry Solutions Chapter 16 – Chemistry in Everyday Life.
There are 48 VSAQs asking you to name the macromolecules used as drug targets, give the definition of chemotherapy, about drug enzyme interaction, about antidepressant drugs, the definition of broad-spectrum antibiotic, about component of antiseptics and disinfectants. Some questions are based on food preservatives and artificial sweetener, synthetic detergents, the mechanism for cleansing action of soaps, labelling the hydrophilic and hydrophobic parts of given compounds.
Next, there are 23 direct and explanatory SAQs asked in this chapter are based on the drug classification, drug-target interaction mechanisms, types of drugs, their actions and uses, food additive molecules, names of soaps and synthetic detergents and methods to prepare the mechanism behind action of soap and biodegradable detergents.
After you have gone through all these questions, we would suggest you solve the important NCERT questions and other questions of previous years’ examinations along with the model question papers, latest CBSE sample papers, previous year’s examination papers given in Part – B of our Xam Idea Class 12 Chemistry Solutions Chapter 16 – Chemistry in Everyday Life.
Benefits of Xam Idea Class 12 Chemistry Chapter 16 – Chemistry in Everyday Life
Some of the key benefits of learning and revising from Xam Idea Class 12 Chemistry Solutions Chapter 16 – Chemistry in Everyday Life are mentioned below.
- They deal with all fundamental information of drugs, food additives, soaps and detergents and their properties, helping you become thorough with the fundamental concepts.
- They are written in clear and simple language, so they are easy to understand.
- They are to the point, fully accurate and facilitate speedy and effective learning.
- The solutions given provide a comprehensive outlook of the topics covered in the chapter at the same time prepare you for scoring high in class 12 board exams.
- They cover a wide range of question types important from exam point of view.
- They help you learn and revise quickly and efficiently.
- They help you score well in your exams.
- Our smart study techniques and learning shortcuts help you learn quickly and score more marks.