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Xam Idea Class 12 Chemistry Chapter 2 Solutions: Solutions

Xam Idea Class 12 Chemistry Solutions Chapter 2 – Solutions has been framed by the expert Chemistry teachers. These are perfectly in sync with all the guidelines issued by CBSE and NCERT. Our solutions provided for all the exercises help you grasp all the topics thoroughly. Scoring good marks in class 12 is particularly important as compared to any other class because the preparation done in this stage helps you build a conceptual foundation for higher academic courses. Our Xam Idea Solutions do just that.

Our Xam Idea Class 12 Chemistry Solutions Chapter 2- Solutions cover all significant questions types important from exam point of view. Some important question types covered in part A of our solutions include multiple-choice questions, very-short answer questions, short answer questions, assertion and reasoning type questions and long answer type questions. Practising from our solutions, you will easily be able to handle all the types of questions.

This chapter deals with all the essential concepts regarding properties of solutions, types of solutions, how to determine the concentration of solutions, distinguish between ideal and non-ideal solutions, Henry’s law and Raoult’s law. It also tells you about the very important properties of solutions used in daily life, that is colligative properties.

Xam Idea Class 12 Chemistry Chapter 2 Overview

Xam Idea Class 12 Chemistry Solutions Chapter 2 – Solutions encompass all the important ideas given in the chapter. They give you an in-depth understanding of the different concepts. Some concepts covered in this chapter have been given below.

 

  • Types of Solutions

 

In this part of the chapter, you learn that solutions can be homogeneous or heterogeneous and the ones having uniform composition and properties throughout the bulk are called homogeneous. Here you will also learn that there may be different types of solutes like gas, liquid or solid and based on these, the solutions can be gaseous, liquid or solid.

 

  • Expressing the Concentration of Solutions

 

This part of the chapter tells you that all the chemical reactions are based on very good knowledge and application of the ways of expressing the concentration of a solution. The common ones used are molarity, molality, mass percentage (w/w), mole fraction, volume percentage (v/v), mass by volume percentage (w/v), and parts per million. This portion of the chapter is very important from a practical point of view. Xam Idea Class 12 Chemistry Solutions Class 12 Chemistry Chapter 2 – Solutions cover all the numerical questions from this part of the chapter and provides you with important tips and techniques to solve such questions.

 

  • Solubility

 

This part of the chapter studies the effect of solute, nature of solvent and temperature on solubility of different solutes in a solvent. 

  1. The Solubility of a Solid in Liquid – This portion of the chapter tells you that solubility of a solid is majorly affected by temperature, and pressure and that it does not have any significant effect on the solubility of a solid in a liquid.
  2. The Solubility of a Gas in a Liquid- This part of the chapter discusses the famous Henry’s law, which directs the dissolution of gas in liquids at a constant temperature. It states that solubility is directly proportional to the pressure of that gas over the liquid surface, and its most common form is p = KH x, where p is the partial pressure of the gas, x is the mole fraction of gas dissolved and KH is Henry’s constant. 

Henry’s law is applied immensely in industrial problems and explaining biological phenomena. It further tells that solubility of gases in liquids decreases upon increasing temperature. Xam Idea Class 12 Chemistry Solutions Class 12 Chemistry Chapter 2 – Solutions accurately solves all the questions based on this concept.

 

  • Vapour Pressure of Liquid Solutions

 

In this part of the chapter, you learn all the properties of binary solutions,  binary solutions of the type – liquids in liquids and solids in liquids. Further, this part of the chapter conveys about the quantitative relationship between two components of a liquid-liquid solution, known as Raoult’s law. Next, you learn that Raoult’s law is a special case of Henry’s law. 

In a solution of a gas in a liquid, that is one of the components is gas, Raoult’s law can be compared to Henry’s law as a special case of latter. Here, KH becomes p1° which is the vapour pressure of pure component 1.

Further, you learn about the vapour pressure of solutions of solids and liquids. The vapour pressure of a mixture of a solid in a solvent is lower than the pure solvent, and the decrease in the vapour pressure is determined by the quantity of non-volatile solute present in solution. Xam Idea Solutions Class 12 Chemistry Chapter 2 – Solutions are prepared in a step by step manner and answer all Xam Idea Part A questions accurately and precisely.

 

  • Ideal and Non-Ideal Solutions

 

In this portion of the chapter, you learn that liquid-liquid solutions are divided into ideal and non-ideal solutions on the basis of their adherence to Raoult’s law.

  1. Ideal solutions

This portion of the chapter teaches you that ideal solutions obey Raoult’s law over the whole range of concentration. Two significant properties of ideal solutions are that their enthalpy and volume of mixing is zero – ΔmixH = 0 and ΔmixV = 0.

  1. Non-ideal solutions

This part of the chapter tells you that non-ideal solutions are the ones that do not obey Raoult’s law over the whole range of concentration. When they show higher vapour pressure than predicted, it is called positive deviation, and when they show lower vapour pressure than predicted by Raoult’s law, it is called a negative deviation. Here you will also learn that the nature of molecular interactions is the cause of this deviation from Raoult’s law.

You further learn here that azeotropes are a result of a large variation from Raoult’s law. Our Xam Idea Class 12 Chemistry Solutions Class 12 Chemistry Chapter 2 – Solutions cover the concepts of the ideal and non-ideal solutions in a comprehensive manner and prepare you well for exams.

 

  • Colligative Properties and Determination of Molar Mass

 

This part of the chapter teaches you about colligative properties of solutions which depend upon the number of solute particles and are independent of their chemical nature. These are the different colligative properties such as the relative lowering of vapour pressure, elevation of boiling point, depression of freezing point, osmosis and osmotic pressure. It further tells you that colligative properties are used for the determination of the molecular mass of solutes and derives and presents several expressions to calculate different parameters of solutions.

 

  • Reverse Osmosis and Water Purification

 

This part of the chapter tells you about the phenomena of reverse osmosis. If a pressure higher than the osmotic pressure is applied on a solution, the process of osmosis can be reversed, hence known as reverse osmosis. Here you will also learn that this principle is used to purify water containing a high amount of salt like seawater for human consumption. Xam Idea Class 12 Chemistry Solutions Class 12 Chemistry Chapter 2 – Solutions lets you gain in-depth knowledge of all the concepts so that you can perform well in exams.

 

  • Abnormal Molar Masses

 

This part of the chapter teaches you the special feature of ionic compounds in solutions. Here you will also read that the solute ionic compound can undergo dissociation into ions when dissolved in water. You will also learn that sometimes, some solute particles can also associate due to interionic interactions. This causes them to show abnormality in their observed molecular masses, being higher than actual in case of association and lower in case of dissociation. This chapter also educates you that Can’t Hoff factor i is the quantitative depiction of the extent to which association or dissociation has taken place.

Xam Idea Class 12 Chemistry Chapter 2 – Exercises

In this chapter, you will find different types of questions important from an exam point of views such as the very short answer (VSA) questions, short answer (SA) questions, and long answer questions (LA). Some of them are direct questions, some test your higher-order thinking skills (HOTS), some of them are application based and value-based questions types. All of these have been dealt with full details by our extensive yet to the point Xam Idea Class 12 Chemistry Solutions Chapter 2 – Solutions.

There are 42 VSAQs based on the concept of types of solutions, Henry’s law, colligative properties and different parameters of the solutions. Further, this chapter has 37 SAQs which are application-based questions on intermolecular forces, Henry’s law, deviation from Raoult’s law, determination of the molar mass of solute, determination of colligative properties etc. At last, there are 22 LAQs which are direct and numerical questions based on knowledge and application of concentration depicting terms like molarity, determination of molar mass/vapour pressure of a solution, and word problems based on colligative properties.

Once you have gone through all these questions, we would suggest you to solve the important NCERT questions and other questions of previous years’ examinations along with the model question papers, latest CBSE sample papers, previous year’s examination papers solved in Part – B of our Xam Idea Class 12 Chemistry Solutions Chapter 2. Our Part B Xam Idea Class 12 Chemistry Solutions Chapter 2 – Solutions give you a holistic practice from all chapters.

Benefits of Xam Idea Class 12 Chemistry Chapter 2 – Solutions

Some of the key benefits of learning and revising from Xam Idea Class 12 Chemistry Solutions Chapter 2 – Solutions are listed below –

  • Solutions of the questions are given in step by step manner so that you can develop a stronghold of the concepts and are able to reproduce the same well during exams.
  • They are to the point yet descriptive as required for effective learning.
  • They let you understand and remember the key points of solutions and their properties, helping you to practically use the same when required during higher studies and daily life situations.
  • Our solutions are a useful tool for quick learning and revision during your exams.
  • The tips and techniques given in our solutions for the numerical problems are the full proof tools for securing good marks in board exams and other competitive exams.