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Xam Idea Class 12 Chemistry Chapter 6 Solutions: General Principles And Processes Of Isolation Of Elements

Xam Idea Class 12 Chemistry Solutions Chapter 6 – General Principles and Processes of Isolation of Elements is one of the most important study materials for Class 12 Chemistry board exam. They are prepared by expert, experienced and eminent Chemistry teachers according to the latest Class 12 CBSE Chemistry Syllabus, and these must be practised regularly for best results. Our solution has answers to all types of questions asked in the Xam Idea Class 12 Chemistry Book to help you become thorough with all concepts of the chapter.

Our well-structured Xam Idea Class 12 Chemistry Solutions Chapter 6 – General Principles and Processes of Isolation of Elements have been strategically divided into Part A and Part B. Where Part A teaches you all the concepts of the chapter and contains various types of practice questions important from exam point of view. Questions vary from the very short answer questions, short answer type questions to long answer types questions and each question type carries a separate weightage. These questions adequately test your memory, analytical skills and higher-order thinking skill. Part B of our solutions contains fully, accurately and precisely solved model papers on the CBSE format and previous years question papers. All these materials provide you with ample amount of practice to master the concepts of the chapter effectively.

The sixth chapter of CBSE Class 12 Chemistry Syllabus is about the important area of extraction of elements from minerals and ores. This chapter makes you familiar with terms ores, minerals, concentration, benefaction, calcination, roasting, refining involved in metallurgy. The other concepts covered are principles of oxidation-reduction, electrochemistry and thermodynamics applied to extraction processes of specific metals. Our solutions provide concise and accurate answers to the questions asked from this topic.

Xam Idea Class 12 Chemistry Chapter 6 Overview

Xam Idea Class 12 Chemistry Solutions Chapter 6 – General Principles and Processes of Isolation of Elements encompass all the topics of this chapter. They give you a comprehensive knowledge of the subject matter. The main points given in this chapter are as follows.

 

  • Occurrence of Metals

 

This portion of the chapter teaches you that different metals are required for many purposes in our daily lives, and for that, we need to extract them from their natural ores which are a reservoir of minerals containing metals. Here you will also learn that ores are commercially useful sources of metals. 

This section also tells you that commercial extraction of metals from their ores is a specialised field known as metallurgy and requires several steps to be performed before the metal is obtained in a pure state for its use. Our Xam Idea Class 12 Chemistry Solutions Chapter 6 – General Principles and Processes of Isolation of Elements gives you all the answers in details hence preparing you best for the exam.

 

  • Concentration of Ores

 

In this part of the chapter, you come to know that the first step in the extraction of metals is the removal of major unwanted substances from ores by either concentration, dressing or benefaction processes. Some of the important procedures include magnetic separation, gravity separation, hydraulic washing, froth floatation method, leaching etc. This section further tells you that metallurgy of silver and gold is more specialised and is based on leaching with a dilute solution of metal cyanide.

 

  • Extraction of Crude Metal from Concentrated Ore

 

This part of the chapter tells you that concentrated ore is converted to an easy to reduce oxide form in the next step. As oxides are easy to reduce after concentration, ores are converted to oxides, and then that oxide is reduced further to obtain metal. Further, you come to know that conversion to oxide can be done by calcination, which is heating the ore in such a manner that volatile matter escapes leaving behind metal oxide. The second method is roasting, and where ore is heated in a regular supply of air to get oxides, this process is used mainly for sulphide ores.

Further, you learn that the oxides such prepared are reduced using a reducing agent like carbon, carbon monoxide, or another metal to obtain pure metal. The suitable reducing agent is decided by interpretation of Gibbs energy versus temperature plots, also known as Ellingham diagram. Our Xam Idea Class 12 Chemistry Solutions Chapter 6 – General Principles and Processes of Isolation of Elements are good for learning the concepts as well as revising them quickly and effectively during exam time. You can score maximum marks in class 12 board exam by referring to them.

 

  • Thermodynamic Principles of Metallurgy

 

This part teaches you the role of thermodynamic concepts and Gibbs energy consideration in metallurgical transformations. When metal oxide reacts with a reducing agent to give the free metal the reducing agent is oxidised, the net Gibbs energy change is negative for these two reactions, which becomes more negative on increasing reaction temperature. This part further tells you that change in physical states like solid to liquid or to gas and formation of gaseous states further leads to lowering Gibbs energy.

Here you will also learn that the Ellingham diagram is a graphical representation of this concept where ΔGθ is plotted against temperature, T, for such oxidation-reduction reactions at various temperatures. This is used immensely in the extraction of iron and copper metals. Our Xam Idea Solutions Chapter 6 – General Principles and Processes of Isolation of Elements are the best study material to understand the concepts of metallurgy.

 

  • Electrochemical Principles of metallurgy

 

In this part of the chapter, you come to know about the process of electrolysis. This is performed for reduction of molten metal salts and is based on certain electrochemical principles. Isolation of certain metals like Al, Ag, Au uses the concept of electrode potential, where the sum of electrode potential is kept positive to achieve a required negative Gibbs energy change during the reaction.

It further tells you that extraction of Aluminum from its bauxite ore is usually performed by leaching it with sodium hydroxide to give sodium aluminate. Sodium aluminate is then separated and neutralised to give back the hydrated oxide, which is then electrolysed using cryolite as flux. Our Xam Idea Class 12 Chemistry Solutions Chapter 6 – General Principles and Processes of Isolation of Elements provides you with simple techniques to answer the questions in Class 12 board and other competitive exams.

 

  • Oxidation-Reduction

 

This part of the chapter teaches you that extraction of non-metals is based on oxidation by an electrochemical process. Chlorine is obtained by this method. Leaching process done for the extraction of gold and silver is also its example.

 

  • Refining

 

This portion of the chapter teaches you that metals extracted after all the above steps still contain some amount of impurity. It needs several specialised techniques of refining to obtain them in their highly pure form. Here you will learn that the different techniques of refining depending upon the differences in the properties of the metals and the impurity are distillation, liquation, electrolytic refining, zone refining, vapour phase refining and chromatographic methods.

Further, you come to know here, that distillation and liquidation are methods opted for low boiling metals. In electrolytic refining pure metal strips are used as cathode and impure metal as the anode, they are put in an electrolyte of salt of the same metal. Our Xam Idea Class 12 Chemistry Solutions Chapter 6 – General Principles and Processes of Isolation of Elements help you memorise and reproduce the concepts precisely and accurately during the exams.

Next, you learn about vapour phase refining, where metal is converted into vapour phase for purification. Mond’s process used for refining Ni is one of its variations. You also come to know about the chromatographic technique which is based on differential adsorption of different components of a mixture on an adsorbent phase when the mixture is run through the adsorbent with the help of a mobile phase.

 

  • Uses of Aluminium, Copper, Zinc and Iron

 

This part of the chapter gives a list where these metals are used in our daily lives. Aluminium is used for making electrical wires, aluminium foils and aircraft parts. Copper is used for making electrical wires, for water and steam pipes and as parts of several alloys. Zinc finds use in the galvanisation of iron, and as part of several alloys. Iron is used in numbers of alloys, wheels, chains, agricultural equipment, household items and a lot of other things of daily use. 

Our Xam Idea Class 12 Chemistry Solutions Chapter 6 – General Principles and Processes of Isolation of Elements gives you a comprehensive insight into the subject matter by giving stepwise solutions to different types of questions.

Xam Idea Class 12 Chemistry Chapter 6 – Exercises

After you have read the detailed concepts of the chapter in Part A, you need to solve different questions to test your conceptual understanding. The questions are divided according to the marks into various types like very short answer (VSA) questions, short answer (SA) questions, and long answer questions (LA) questions. You will also be dealing with diversified questions based on remembering and understanding, higher-order thinking skills (HOTS), application-based and value-based questions, memory and analytical skill-based questions.

This chapter has 28 VSAQs that are based on various concepts of metallurgy as – the role of depressant in froth floatation, extraction of gold and silver, zone refining, the chemistry involved in zinc extraction, the role of silica in metallurgy of copper, column chromatography, the role of cryolite in Al extraction, electrolysis of molten NaCl, principles lying behind the given methods of refining metals. There are 38 SAQs given in this chapter, which ask you about the concept of Ellingham diagram, electrolytic extraction of copper, reactions happening in the extraction of iron through a blast furnace, refining of nickel, techniques used in the extraction of Al from bauxite among others. 

The Xam Idea Class 12 Chemistry Solutions Chapter 6 – General Principles and Processes of Isolation of Elements provide you with the best possible answers to these questions. Once you understand the concepts thoroughly with the help of our solutions, it becomes easy for you to score well in your Class 12 board exams and crack the competitive exams.

Once you are done practising these questions from Part A, you should go through the other questions given in part A like NCERT and exemplar questions and other important questions of previous years’ examinations. Further, you should solve the latest CBSE sample papers, model question papers previous year’s examination papers explicitly solved in Part – B of the Xam Idea Class 12 Chemistry Solutions Chapter 6. You should solve all these thoroughly, to build a profound conceptual foundation.

Benefits of Xam Idea Class 12 Chemistry Chapter 6 – General Principles and Processes of Isolation of Elements

Some of the major benefits of referring Xam Idea Class 12 Chemistry Solutions Chapter 6 – General Principles and Processes of Isolation of Elements are as follows –

  • They help you build a strong conceptual foundation of the topic metallurgy and different principles involved in its practice. 
  • They are the best tools to understand all the principles covered in this chapter and to effectively revise during exams. 
  • The solutions provided incorporate various chemical equations, graphs, diagrams and suitable illustrations which enable you to learn and remember the concepts well.
  • The solutions are prepared by expert Chemistry teachers in an easy to understand language.
  • They cover a wide range of question types important from an exam point of view.
  • They clear your doubts about the concepts taught in this chapter instantly and help you score well in your class 12 board exams.
  • They make learning fun, interesting, engaging, interactive and efficient. 
  • Our solutions have been solved using the best methods of solving the questions.