Xam Idea Class 12 Chemistry Chapter 8 Solutions: The D And F Block Elements
Xam Idea Class 12 Chemistry Solutions for Chapter 8 ‘The d– and f– Block Elements’ are provided here to help you understand all the ideas of this important topic from inorganic chemistry. They follow the exact guidelines given by CBSE and NCERT. Our Xam Idea Solutions have been prepared by the best Chemistry experts. Referring to our solutions will help you perform well in your Class 12 Board exams and pursue your desired course in higher studies.
Part A of Xam Idea Class 12 Chemistry Solutions Chapter 8 contains detailed explanations of all concepts of the chapter and a wide range of questions and answers that help you strengthen your conceptual understanding. The questions test your analytical, memory and higher-order thinking skills. Some of them are very short answer questions, short answer type questions and long answer type question. These are framed in different styles such as multiple choice type questions, assertion reasoning type questions, fill in the blanks questions and match the following type questions for your complete practice. Part B of our solutions contains elaborated and comprehensive solutions to questions papers based on the latest CBSE exam format. It also contains some fully solved model papers which give you a holistic practice of the Class 12 Chemistry Syllabus.
Chapter 8 deals with the positions and properties of the d– and f-block elements, also known as transition and inner transition elements, respectively, in the periodic table. Here, the general characteristics, general horizontal and group trends, and relative stability of several oxidation states of these metals have been discussed. You also learn about preparation, properties, structures and uses of some important potassium compounds.
Xam Idea Class 12 Chemistry Solutions Chapter 8 – The d– and f– Block Elements Overview
Our Xam Idea Class 12 Chemistry Solutions Chapter 8– The d– and f– Block Elements cover all the concepts given in the chapter. The outline of the concepts covered in this chapter has been given below.
- The Transition Elements (d-Block)
In this section, you will learn that a transition element is defined as an element whose d-orbitals are incompletely filled in either ground state or anyone oxidation state. Here you will also learn that the three series of transition metals are 3d series which starts with Sc and ends at Zn; 4d series, Y to Cd; and 5d series, La to Hg where the elements Ce to Lu are not included.
- Electronic Configurations of the d- Block Elements
In this portion of the chapter, you learn that the d-block consists of Groups 3-12 and occupies the mid-portion of the periodic table. The common electronic configuration of these elements is (n-1)d1-10ns1-2, and the inner d orbitals of these elements are filled in progression. Here you will also learn that the transition elements show more similarity in their properties horizontally compared to the main group elements. Our Xam Idea Class 12 Chemistry Solutions Chapter 8 – The d– and f– Block Elements give you an exact idea of methods to solve different types of questions.
- General Properties of the Transition Elements
This part of the chapter tells you that the transition elements are arranged in three rows as per filling of 3d, 4d and 5d orbitals in the transition elements. All of them exhibit characteristic metallic properties such as ductility, high tensile strength, malleability, thermal and electrical conduction properties. Here you also learn that most of these properties rise to a maximum at d5 configuration, that is middle of a row indicating one unpaired electron per d orbital provides a strong interaction between atoms. They show high melting and boiling points which is due to the strong interatomic bonding displayed by (n –1) d electrons.
- Ionisation enthalpies and oxidation states
This portion discusses how the addition of one electron at a time in inner d orbitals, from left to right, leads to an increase in ionisation enthalpies. However, this increase is not as sharp as in the main group elements with increasing atomic number. Further, you will learn that these elements show variable oxidation states which is a peculiar property of these elements.
Due to this property, they exhibit certain discrete features. The variable oxidation state is due to the involvement of (n–1) d electrons. They show catalytic properties, paramagnetism and the tendency for the formation of coloured ions, complexes and interstitial compounds due to the ability to exist in various oxidation states.
- Chemical reactivity and Eθ values
This part of the chapter discusses the chemical reactivity of the transition metals. These metals usually vary in their chemical reactivity, some are electropositive to dissolve in mineral acids, and some are non-reactive.
Here you will also learn that the transition metals show reaction with non-metals like halogens, sulphur, nitrogen and oxygen to give binary compounds. Our Xam Idea Class 12 Chemistry Solutions Chapter 8 – The d– and f– Block Elements let you understand these concepts well and reproduce them in a fruitful manner.
- Some Important Compounds of Transition Metals
This portion tells you that the oxides of first series transition metals are usually formed when these metals combine with oxygen at high temperatures. These oxides react with acids and bases to form oxo-metallic salts. The common examples are oxidising agents, K2Cr2O7 (prepared from the chromite ore) and KMnO4 (prepared by using pyrolusite ore or MnO2).
- The Inner Transition Elements (f-Block)
This part of the chapter teaches you about the next important class of elements known as inner transition elements, lanthanoids and actinoids series of f-block. The f-block is kept at the bottom of the periodic table, and in the elements of this block, 4f and 5f orbitals are gradually filled. Further, you come to know about lanthanoid contraction, which is a gradual decrease in the atomic and ionic sizes of these metals with a sequential filling of the inner 4f orbitals across the series. This causes the unusual chemistry of the elements which come after them in the periodic table.
Further, you learn that lanthanoids along with Lanthanum are soft and white metals and react easily with water. The dominant oxidation state shown by these elements is +3, apart from +2 and +4 displayed occasionally by some elements. Next, you learn about the complex chemistry of actinoids as they can exist in different oxidation states. Study of actinoid elements is not as easy as they are radioactive.
At last, you learn about some of the uses of transition and inner transition elements and their compounds, some of them are used to make varieties of steels, catalysts, organic synthetic complexes. Xam Idea Class 12 Chemistry Solutions Chapter 8 – The d– and f– Block Elements help you score maximum marks in exams.
Exercise Discussion for Xam Idea Class 12 Chemistry Chapter 8 – The d– and f– Block Elements
There are a number of multiple choices, assertion reasoning, match the following, fill in the blanks and direct questions at the end of the chapter. These are divided into the very short answer, short answer and long answer type depending upon their weightage of marks. The questions test your memory skills, analytical skills, understanding of the concepts and higher-order thinking skills.
Given below is a summary of the questions asked in this chapter. Xam Idea Class 12 Chemistry Solutions Chapter 8 – The d– and f– Block Elements are the best study material available for studying transition metals and inner transition metals.
This chapter has 34 VSAQs which are based on properties shown by transition metals, various compounds formed by transition metals, electrode potentials of transition metal ions, availability of unpaired electrons in d orbitals and disproportionation reaction. Next, there are 36 SAQs asking you to write the electronic configuration of given ions, actions of potassium dichromate and potassium permanganate, detail about alloys, inner transition elements, characteristics of lanthanoids and actinoids and preparation method of potassium dichromate and potassium permanganate.
Lastly, there are 24 LAQs which are explanatory, comparative questions and detailed type questions on electronic configurations of transition metals, direct questions on transition metals, inner transition elements and their properties.
These questions give you an ample amount of practice on different concepts learnt. The Part B of Xam Idea Class 12 Chemistry Solutions has exhaustive yet to the point solutions to several model papers and previous year’s question papers. You are advised to solve these also so that you get the exact idea of how questions are framed for exams.
Benefits of Xam Idea Class 12 Chemistry Solutions Chapter 8 – The d– and f– Block Elements
Some of the major benefits of Xam Idea Class 12 Chemistry Solutions Chapter 8 – The d– and f– Block Elements are as given below –
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