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Xam Idea Class 12 Chemistry Chapter 9 Solutions: Coordination Compounds

Xam Idea Class 12 Chemistry Solutions Chapter 9 – Coordination Compounds is a topic from inorganic chemistry and is very useful in our daily lives. A team of well-experienced Chemistry teachers have designed and prepared these solutions. These are a hundred per cent accurate solutions that take care of all your study needs. Referring to these solutions will help you achieve desired results in Class 12 board exams.

Part A of Xam Idea Class 12 Chemistry Solutions Chapter 9 contains extensive conceptual explanations and a good number of questions to sharpen your conceptual understanding of the chapter. The questions are divided into the very short answer questions, short answer type and long answer type questions, based on their weightage of marks. The questions are of different styles such as fill in the blanks, multiple choice, assertion reasoning, and matching the columns. Part B of our solutions contains fully solved sample questions papers based on the latest CBSE exam pattern. All these questions are intended to cover all the concepts taught in this chapter comprehensively.

The ninth unit of Class 12 Chemistry Syllabus provides knowledge about coordination entity, central atom/ion, ligand, coordination number, coordination sphere, homoleptic and heteroleptic complexes, colour in coordination compounds and spectrochemical series. You learn to write the formulas and names of coordination compounds and different types of isomerism in coordination compounds. You will understand the nature of bonding in coordination compounds in terms of the Valence Bond and Crystal Field theories and learn about applications of coordination compounds in daily life.

Important Topics for Xam Idea Class 12 Chemistry Solutions Chapter 9 – Coordination Compounds

Xam Idea Class 12 Chemistry Solutions Chapter 9 – Coordination Compounds incorporates all the concepts of this unit. An outline of the concepts covered in this chapter is as follows.

  • Werner’s Theory of Coordination Compounds

This part of the chapter tells about the postulates of Werner’s theory. This was one of the preliminary explanations given for coordination compound formation. According to this theory, in coordination compounds, metals ions show two types of linkages or valences known as primary (ionisable) and secondary (non-ionisable) linkages.

Here you will also learn that the coordination number for a metal ion is its secondary valence. It remains fixed for metal and shows characteristic arrangements in space corresponding to different coordination numbers.

  • Definitions of Some Important Terms Related to Coordination Compounds

This part of the chapter teaches you about coordination entity which is made up of a central metal atom or ion associated with a definite number of ions or neutral molecules called ligands. Ligands are of different types. It can be a single atom bearing charge or a group of atoms with or without charge.

Here you will also learn that a chelate ligand is a di- or polydentate ligand using its two or more donor atoms simultaneously to bind a single metal ion. The number of donor atoms of ligand, to which the metal is directly attached in a coordination compound is known as the coordination number (CN) of the metal ion. Our Xam Idea Class 12 Chemistry Solutions Chapter 9 – Coordination Compounds help you to prepare all the topics comprehensively.

You further learn here that the coordination complexes can be homoleptic complexes where the central atom is attached to only one kind of donor ligand or heteroleptic complexes in which the donor ligands are of more than one type. This chapter also teaches you that a coordination sphere is an entity in which the central atom or ion and the ligands linked to it are kept in square bracket.

The spatial arrangement of the ligand atoms linked to the metal atom/ion make a polyhedron shape about the central atom and the common coordination polyhedra are tetrahedral, square planar and octahedral.

  • Nomenclature of Coordination Compounds

This part of the chapter deals with a very important topic and tells you the rules applied to give a name to a coordination compound. The procedure of nomenclature follows the principles of additive nomenclature where the ligands are named before the metal ion, and the names of the ligands are written in order.

The order is followed in this manner – firstly neutral, then negative, and finally, positive ligands are written. If there are multiple ligands of the same charge type, they are named in alphabetical order. Our Xam Idea Class 12 Chemistry Solutions Chapter 9 – Coordination Compounds gives you a fair idea of all the questions types being asked in exams, thus helping you to get full marks.

  • Isomerism in Coordination Compounds

This part of the chapter teaches you about two main types of isomerism shown by coordination compounds. They are (a) stereoisomerism which is divided into geometrical isomerism and optical isomerism and (b) structural isomerism, having the following subdivisions – linkage isomerism, coordination isomerism, ionisation isomerism and solvate isomerism.

  • Bonding in Coordination Compounds

This part of the chapter tells about the theories which explain the bonding between metal ion and ligand. The first one is valence bond theory (VBT) according to which the metal atom or ion can use its valence orbitals for hybridisation. Here you will also learn the valence orbitals are influenced by ligands to produce a set of equivalent orbitals of spread out in a particular geometry. The coordination compounds show specific magnetic properties and three-dimensional shape. This chapter Valence bond theory has some limitation too, where it fails to offer a quantitative interpretation of magnetic behaviour and reason for the optical properties of the coordination compounds.

Further, in this chapter, crystal field theory (CFT) has been discussed. CFT is a purely electrostatic model which considers that ligands are point charges. The ligands affect the degeneracy of d orbital energies of the central metal atom/ion by splitting the d-orbitals into different energy levels. This splitting of d-orbitals in different energy levels causes the difference in electronic arrangements for strong and weak crystal fields of attaching ligands. Here you will also learn that CFT provides numerical assessments of magnetic moments, orbital separation energies, spectral and stability parameters.

This chapter also talks about the spectrochemical series. This is the arrangement of ligands in order of their increasing field strengths, and also the colour in the coordination compounds can be readily explained in terms of the crystal field theory. Our Xam Idea Solutions Chapter 9 – Coordination Compounds are written in a detailed and interactive manner so that you can learn the importance of colour and spectrochemical series effectively.

This portion of the chapter further discusses the limitations of CFT, such as it does not explain the splitting effects of anionic ligands and also does not considers the covalent character of bonding between the ligand and the central atom.

  • Bonding in Metal Carbonyls

This section of the chapter teaches you that a lot of transition metals make special compounds called carbonyl compounds. This part of the chapter also tells you that the metal-carbon (M-C) bond has both σ and π bonds. In M-C σ bond, an electron pair is donated by CO to metal, and in M-C π bond, CO donates a pair of electrons to the metal ion. This is a unique synergic bonding system providing stability to metal carbonyls. Our Xam Idea Class 12 Chemistry Solutions Chapter 9 – Coordination Compounds provides you with important tips for solving questions asked in exams.

  • Importance and Applications of Coordination Compounds

This part of the chapter makes you aware of the importance and uses of coordination compounds. These compounds help in explaining the functioning and structures of important constituents of biological systems. They are extensively applied in metallurgical processes, analytical and medicinal chemistry purposes.

Exercise Discussion for Xam Idea Class 12 Chemistry Chapter 9 – Coordination Compounds

After thoroughly going through all the concepts of coordination chemistry, you should practice the questions asked at the end of this chapter. There are different types of questions covered here. Some of them are very short answer questions, short answer and long answer type questions. Some questions are memory-based, logic-based, reasoning based and analytical thinking-based. All these questions are intended to cover all the concepts taught in this chapter.

This chapter has 22 VSAQs based on Werner’s theory, nomenclature of coordination compounds, colour, coordination number, different types of isomerism, spectrochemical series, and uses of coordination compounds.

There are 58 SAQs which ask you direct questions based on definitions of terms, explanatory questions on valence bond theory and crystal field theory, about bonding in metal carbonyls, the stability of coordination compounds, chelate effect, and application of coordination compounds. Our Xam Idea Class 12 Chemistry Solutions Chapter 9 – Coordination Compounds provide answers to these questions in detail. These are precise solutions that help you learn effectively.

All these questions are answered comprehensively in our Xam Idea Class 12 Chemistry Solutions Chapter 4 – Chemical Kinetics. The questions discussed above give you an ample amount of practice of different concepts learnt.

Part B of Xam Idea Class 12 Chemistry Solutions Chapter  9 has several fully solved model papers and previous year’s question papers. You are suggested to solve these to get well acquainted with Class 12 Chemistry exam environment and exam pattern.

Benefits of Xam Idea Class 12 Chemistry Solutions Chapter 9 – Coordination Compounds

Some of the key benefits of learning and revising from Xam Idea Class 12 Chemistry Solutions Chapter 9 – Coordination Compounds are given below.

  • These solutions take care of all your learning requirements and provide the best content.
  • They help you in your revisions during class 12 board exams and other competitive exams so that you can achieve good marks. 
  • The solutions provided maintain a logical flow of information to facilitate quick and effective learning.
  • The solutions are made descriptive and contain requisite diagrams and illustrations to make the study material more interactive and useful.
  • They cover all the topics and subtopics of this chapter and gives meticulous and detailed answers to all the questions asked in the chapter.
  • They are a handy tool for comprehensive learning and problem-solving.
  • The solutions are drafted in a stepwise manner and in a simple language.