Xam Idea Class 12 Chemistry Solutions
Xam Idea Class 12 Chemistry Solutions have been framed, keeping all the guidelines of CBSE syllabus in mind. Xam Idea Class 12 Chemistry Book covers the Class 12 Chemistry Syllabus comprehensively and provides best solutions for the questions based on all the topics of three main branches of Chemistry.
Xam Idea Class 12 solutions provide clear and precise answers to all the questions asked in Xam Idea Class 12 Chemistry book. The solutions for all the exercises are given in such a manner that will help you to grasp all the topics thoroughly. Referring to our Xam Idea Class 12 Chemistry Solutions would also help you understand the proper methods of answering the questions as per the marking scheme. They are a very important source of study to score good marks in class 12 board exams and other competitive exams.
The chapters based on Organic Chemistry are haloalkanes and haloarenes; alcohol, phenols and ethers; aldehydes, ketones and carboxylic acids; and amines. Chapters based on Inorganic Chemistry are general principles and processes of isolation of elements; p-block elements; d- and f-block elements; and coordination compounds. The chapters based on physical Chemistry are solid-state, chemical kinetics, electro-Chemistry, and surface Chemistry. Not only these the chapters – biomolecules, polymers, and Chemistry in everyday life – are the chapters of immense use in daily life.
Xam Idea Class 12 Chemistry Solutions: Chapter-wise
The chapters covered in Xam Idea Class 12 Chemistry Book and their components are discussed below in detail. The questions are of different types like very short answer questions (VSAQ), short answer questions (SAQ), and long answer questions (LAQ).
Xam Idea Class 12 Chemistry Chapter 1 (The Solid State) Solutions
This chapter informs you all about general characteristics of solid-state, amorphous and crystalline solids, classification of crystalline solids, molecular solids, ionic solids and metallic solids. You also learn about covalent and network solids, crystal lattices, unit cells, primitive and centred unit cells, number of atoms in a unit cell.
Here you learn in detail about primitive cubic, body-centred cubic and face-centred cubic (fcc) unit cell; close-packed structures (ccp), the formula of a compound and number of voids filled, packing efficiency definition and packing efficiency in hcp and ccp structures; in body-centred cubic structures and in a simple cubic lattice.
Further, you learn about calculations involving unit cell dimensions, imperfections in solids, types of point defects, electrical properties, conduction of electricity in metals, conduction of electricity in semiconductors and magnetic properties. This chapter has 58 VSAQs, 37 SAQs and 7 LAQs
Xam Idea Class 12 Chemistry Chapter 2 (Solutions) Solutions
Chapter 2 of Xam Idea Class 12 Chemistry Solutions deals with types of solutions, expressing the concentration of solutions. You learn to determine the molarity, molality, mass percentage and mole fraction of solutions. Further, you learn about solubility, the solubility of a solid in a liquid, the solubility of a gas in a liquid, vapour pressure of liquid solutions, the vapour pressure of liquid-liquid solutions, Raoult’s law as a special case of Henry’s law.
Here you also learn about vapour pressure of solutions of solids in liquids, ideal and nonideal solutions, colligative properties and determination of molar mass, relative lowering of vapour pressure, the elevation of boiling point, depression of freezing point, osmosis and osmotic pressure, and abnormal molar masses. This chapter has 42 VSAQs, 37 SAQs and 22 LAQs.
Xam Idea Class 12 Chemistry Chapter 3 (Electrochemistry) Solutions
Electrochemistry chapter teaches you about electrochemical cells, galvanic cells and measurement of electrode potential. Further, you learn about Nernst equation, the equilibrium constant from the Nernst equation, electrochemical cell and Gibbs energy of a reaction. This chapter also teaches you about the conductance of electrolytic solutions, measurement of the conductivity of ionic solutions, the variation of conductivity and molar conductivity with concentration.
You also get to know about electrolytic cells and electrolysis, products of electrolysis, batteries, primary batteries, secondary batteries, fuel cells and the phenomenon of corrosion and how it is related to the formation of localized cells on metal surfaces. This chapter has 42 VSAQs, 28 SAQs and 28 LAQs. Our Solutions cover all corners of the chapter and have been prepared in an easy to understand language to facilitate quick and effective learning.
Xam Idea Class 12 Chemistry Chapter 4 (Chemical Kinetics) Solutions
In this chapter of Xam Idea Class 12 Chemistry book, you learn all about the rate of a chemical reaction, factors influencing the rate of a reaction, the dependence of rate on concentration. Further, you understand what rate expression is and how to calculate the rate constant, the order of a reaction and molecularity of a reaction.
Next you learn about integrated rate equations, zero-order reactions, pseudo-first-order reaction and first-order reactions. You also learn to calculate the half-life of a reaction, temperature dependence of the rate of a reaction, effect of catalyst and collision theory of chemical reactions. This chapter has 28 VSAQs, 48 SAQs and 11 LAQs. Our Xam Idea Solutions cover all concepts of this chapter in detail.
Xam Idea Class 12 Chemistry Chapter 5 (Surface Chemistry) Solutions
In the Surface Chemistry chapter, you come across the phenomena of adsorption, the distinction between adsorption and absorption, mechanism of adsorption and types of adsorption. You learn more about adsorption isotherms, adsorption from solution phase and applications of adsorption. Next, this chapter teaches you about catalysis, homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysis, adsorption theory of heterogeneous catalysis, shape-selective catalysis by zeolites, enzyme catalysis, catalysts in industry.
Some other significant topics covered here are colloids, classification of colloids, classification based on the physical state of the dispersed phase and dispersion medium, classification based on the nature of the interaction between the dispersed phase and dispersion medium and classification based on the type of particles of the dispersed phase.
You also learn about multi molecular, macromolecular, and associated colloids, preparation of colloids, purification of colloidal solutions, properties of colloidal solutions, emulsions and more about colloids around us. This chapter has 63 VSAQs and 39 SAQs. Our Xam Idea Class 12 Chemistry Solutions answer all questions in a stepwise, precise and accurate manner.
Xam Idea Class 12 Chemistry Chapter 6 (General Principles and Processes of Isolation of Elements) Solutions
Chapter 6 of Xam Idea Class 12 Chemistry teaches you the fundamental principles behind the scientific and technological process used for isolation of the metal from its ores known as metallurgy. You learn here about the occurrence of metals, concentration of ores, extraction of crude metal from concentrated ore.
You also learn about thermodynamic principles of metallurgy, electrochemical principles of metallurgy, oxidation-reduction, a different way of refining metals and lastly uses of aluminium, copper, zinc, and iron. This chapter has 28 VSAQs and 38 SAQs.
Xam Idea Class 12 Chemistry Chapter 7 (The p-Block Elements) Solutions
Chapter 7 discusses the elements of Group 13 to 18, which are called p-block elements. They have their general outer electronic configuration as ns2np1-6. You learn more about the prominent group 15 elements nitrogen and its compounds — dinitrogen, ammonia, oxides of nitrogen, nitric acid; phosphorus and its compounds — allotropic forms of phosphorus, phosphine, phosphorus halides, oxoacids of phosphorus. Then you come to know about group 16 elements, oxygen — dioxygen, simple oxides, ozone; sulphur — allotropic forms of sulphur, sulphur dioxide, oxoacids of sulphur, sulphuric acid.
Next you learn about group 17 elements, chlorine, hydrogen chloride, oxoacids of halogens, interhalogen compounds and finally about group 18 elements. This chapter has 51 VSAQs, 57 SAQs and 23 LAQs.
Xam Idea Class 12 Chemistry Chapter 8 (The d– and f– Block elements) Solutions
The 8th chapter of Xam Idea Class 12 Chemistry Solutions is about d– and f– block elements of the modern periodic table. In this chapter, you first learn about the positions of these elements in the periodic table. Then you deal with the electronic configuration of the d-block elements or transition elements, occurrence and general properties and characteristics of the transition elements with emphasis on the trends in the properties of the first row (3d) transition metals.
Here you also learn about the preparation and properties of some important compounds of transition elements. Then you learn about certain general aspects such as electronic configurations, oxidation states and chemical reactivity of the inner transition metals that are the lanthanoids and the actinoids. Finally, you get to know some applications of d– and f-block elements. This chapter has 34 VSAQs, 36 SAQs and 24 LAQs.
Xam Idea Class 12 Chemistry Chapter 9 (Coordination Compounds) Solutions
This chapter teaches you about the Chemistry of coordination compounds. Here you learn Werner’s theory of coordination compounds and definitions of some important terms pertaining to coordination compounds.
Further, you learn how to do nomenclature of coordination compounds, and about isomerism in coordination compounds, bonding in coordination compounds, bonding in metal carbonyls, the stability of coordination compounds and lastly importance and applications of coordination compounds. This chapter has 22 VSAQs and 58 SAQs. Our comprehensive solutions answer all questions accurately and precisely.
Xam Idea Class 12 Chemistry Chapter 10 (Haloalkanes and Haloarenes) Solutions
This chapter of Xam Idea Class 12 Chemistry book teaches you that haloalkanes are the halogen-containing hydrocarbons and these may be primary, secondary, or tertiary depending upon the place of hydrogen atoms attached. The aromatic compounds where the halogen atom is attached directly to the carbon atom of the aromatic ring are known as haloarenes.
Further, you learn about classification, nomenclature of these halogen-containing compounds, nature of C – X bonds, methods of preparation, physical properties, chemical reactions and polyhalogen compounds. This chapter has 27 VSAQs and 44 SAQs.
Xam Idea Class 12 Chemistry Chapter 11 (Alcohols, Phenols and Ethers)
Chapter 11 tells you all about alcohols and phenols, their classification, nomenclature, physical properties and chemical properties. Alcohols can be prepared from alkenes and alkyl halides; and phenols can be prepared from benzene sulphonic acids, haloarenes, cumene and diazonium salts.
Further, you learn here that alcohols and phenols are classified on the basis of the number of -OH groups present, where compounds with 1, 2, 3 and more than 3 hydroxyl groups are known as monohydric, dihydric, trihydric and polyhydric alcohols and phenols.
This chapter also tells you about ethers, their classification, nomenclature, physical and chemical properties in detail. Ethers can be prepared from alcohols, alkyl halides and sodium alkoxides. Next you learn about some commercially important alcohols and ethers. This chapter has 21 VSAQs, 47 SAQs and 7 LAQs. Our smart, innovative Xam Idea Class 12 Chemistry Solutions accurately answer all questions to help you strengthen your preparation.
Xam Idea Class 12 Chemistry Chapter 12 (Aldehydes, Ketones and Carboxylic Acids) Solutions
The 12th chapter Xam Idea Class 12 Chemistry book teaches you about the most important compounds of Organic Chemistry containing carbonyl as the functional group that is aldehydes, ketones and carboxylic acids. You further learn about nomenclature and structure of carbonyl groups and preparation of aldehydes and ketones. Aldehydes and ketones are prepared by the ozonolysis of alkenes, by hydration of alkynes and by the oxidation of alcohols or from cyanides.
You also learn the physical properties, chemical reactions and uses of aldehydes and ketones. Further, the chapter tells you about nomenclature and structure of carboxyl groups, methods of preparation of carboxylic acids, physical properties, chemical reactions, and uses of carboxylic acids. Carboxylic acids are obtained by the oxidation of primary alcohols or aldehydes. Carboxylic acids are more acidic than alcohols or phenols due to resonance stabilization. This chapter has 16 VSAQs, 43 SAQs and 19 LAQs.
Xam Idea Class 12 Chemistry Chapter 13 (Amines) Solutions
This chapter of Xam Idea Class 12 Chemistry Makes you aware about amines which are derivatives of ammonia obtained by the replacement of hydrogen by alkyl or aryl group. Based on the number of hydrogen atoms replaced, amines are classified into primary, secondary and tertiary amines. Amines are an important class of nitrogen-containing Organic compounds.
Here, you will be able to understand the nomenclature, classification, properties, and structure of amines. You will learn all about the basicity of amines, synthesis of amines and characteristic reactions shown by amines. Next, you will learn about methods of preparation of Diazonium Salts and importance of Diazonium salts in the synthesis of aromatic compounds. This chapter has 22 VSAQs, 27 SAQs and 19 LAQs.
Xam Idea Class 12 Chemistry Chapter 14 (Biomolecules)
Biomolecules chapter of Xam Idea Class 12 Chemistry Book teaches you about the Organic compounds present as essential constituents of the living organism and known as biomolecules and include carbohydrates, proteins, enzymes, vitamins and nucleic acids as the main types. These biomolecules interact with each other and constitute the molecular basis of life processes.
This chapter explains the characteristics of biomolecules and teaches their classification on the basis of their structures; explains the difference between DNA and RNA and describes the role of biomolecules in bio-system. This chapter has 72 VSAQs and 44 SAQs. Our solutions for Xam Idea Class 12 Chemistry precisely, accurately and comprehensively answer all questions and give you ample practise to strengthen your concepts.
Xam Idea Class 12 Chemistry Chapter 15 (Polymers) Solutions
Chapter 15 tells you that polymers are high molecular mass substances consisting of a very large number of simple repeating structural units called monomers joined together through covalent bonds. Here, you come to know about the classification of polymers based on source: natural polymers, semi-synthetic polymers and synthetic polymer; classification of polymers based on structure: linear branched-chain, cross-linked or network polymers; classification of polymers based on the mode of polymerization: addition and condensation polymers and finally classification of polymers based on molecular forces: elastomers, fibres, thermoplastic and thermosetting.
Further, you learn about types of polymerization, the molecular mass of polymers. Biodegradable polymers, and polymers of commercial importance. This chapter has 21 VSAQs and 29 SAQs.
Xam Idea Class 12 Chemistry Chapter 16 (Chemistry in Everyday Life)
The last chapter of Xam Idea Class 12th Chemistry Solutions tells you that Chemistry is essential for human life and the principles of Chemistry have been used for the benefit of mankind. This chapter teaches you about drugs and their classifications, drug-target interaction: enzymes as drug targets, receptors as drug targets, the therapeutic action of different classes of drugs: antacids, antihistamines, neurologically active drugs, antimicrobials, antifertility drugs.
Next, you learn about chemicals in food: artificial sweetening agents, food preservatives. You also learn about cleansing agents: soaps, synthetic detergents. This chapter has 48 VSAQs and 23 SAQs. Our strategic and well-structured Xam Idea Solutions answer all questions from this chapter in a step by step manner to help you learn effectively